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FM 3-22.9 

C1 

Change 1 Headquarters 

Department of the Army 
Washington, DC, 10 February 201 1 

Rifle Marksmanship 
M16-/M4-Series Weapons 

1 . Change FM 3-22.9, 1 2 August 2008, as follows: 

Remove old pages: Insert new pages: 

No pages Summary of Changes 

i through xiv i through xiv 

5-3 through 5-4 5-3 through 5-4 

5-1 7 through 5-42 5-1 7 through 5-38 

6-19 through 6-20 6-1 9 through 6-20 

7-57 through 7-70 7-57 through 7-74 

8-27 through 8-28 8-27 through 8-28 

B-1 through B-6 B-1 through B-6 

F-1 through F-8 F-1 through F-12 

lndex-1 to lndex-16 lndex-1 to lndex-14 

DA Form 5789-R DA Form 5789-R 

DA Form 5790-R DA Form 5790-R 

No pages DA Form 7682-R 

2. A star (*) marks new or changed material. 

3. File this transmittal sheet in front of the publication. 

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 

By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 



GEORGE W. CASEY, JR. 

General, United States Army 
Chief of Staff 
Official: 



JOYCE E. MORROW 

Administrative Assistant to the 

Secretary of the Army 

1034702 

DISTRIBUTION: Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in 
accordance with initial distribution number 110187, requirements for FM 3-22.9. 



PIN: 080759-001 



This page intentionally left blank. 



^Summary of Changes 



Change 1 of FM 3-22.9, Rifle Marksmanship, M16-/M4- Series Weapons, integrates the new combat field fire 
into the advanced rifle marksmanship training strategy. This change outlines the combat field fire portion of the 
training program (concept, conduct, and record of performance; found in Section VII of Chapter 7, found on 
page 7-59) and introduces its associated scorecard (blank scorecard is located at the end of the publication; 
example completed scorecard is located on page B-6). 

This change also integrates the supplemental 200-meter zeroing procedures as an alternative to 300-meter 
zeroing (found in Section II of Chapter 5). Appendix F includes target offsets for these procedures. 

Further, minor changes are made to correct the content of the publication. These include the following: 

• In paragraphs 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-45, 5-46, and 5-47 (pages 5-3, 5-4, 5-17, 5-18, and 5-19), changes were 
made to accommodate the five-round shot groups fired in initial entry training (IET). 

• Paragraphs 5-49 and 5-50 (page 5-19) were added to address the conduct of a 200-meter zero firing. 

• In Figure 5-20 (page 5-21), "100-meter" is changed to "75-meter" and "200-meter" is changed 
to "175-meter." 

• In Figure 5-31 (page 5-33), the lengths of the rounds have been corrected. 

• The notes on page 5-35 and 5-36 were modified to indicate new paragraph placement. 

• In Table 6-16 (page 6-19), the Number of Rounds column reflects the following changes: 

■ In the Table 1 row, the column is changed to read "20-round magazine, two rounds for each 
silhouette." 

■ In the Table 3 row, the column is changed to read "10-round magazine, two rounds for each 
silhouette at 50 to 100 meters and one round at each 150-meter silhouette." 

• Paragraph 6-91 (page 6-20) was modified to include additional information about scoring. 

• In paragraph 6-93 (page 6-20), the NSNs have been corrected. 

• In Table 7-21 (page 7-57), "Short/45 m" is changed to read "Short/40 m." 

• In paragraphs 8-93 and 8-94 (page 8-28), the number of rounds fired from the prone unsupported 
position was raised to 20, and the 10 rounds fired from the kneeling firing position was reduced to 0. 

• In Figure B-5 (page B-4), updates reflect the changes in DA Form 5789-R (Record Fire 
Scorecard — Known Distance Course). 

• Appendix F has been modified to include 200-meter zero offsets. This impacts the chapter 
introduction (page F-l). Also, a portion of the appendix has been added to address marking 
25 -meter zero offsets for 200 meters (beginning with paragraph F-3 on page F-9). 

• In Table F-l (page F-7), the zero offset for the M16A4 MWS with the M68 accessory has been 
corrected. 

• In DA Form 5789-R, the Range column reflects the following changes: 

■ In Table 2, "300" is changed to "200." 

■ In Table 3, "300" is changed to "100." 

• In DA Form 5790-R (Record Firing Scorecard — Scaled Target Alternate Course), the rear of the 
scorecard is changed to read — 

(3) Table 3 — Kneeling Firing Position. The firer is given one 10-round magazine to engage 10 
silhouettes on the target sheet. Table 3 includes 2 rounds for each silhouette positioned at 50 and 
100 meters and 1 round for each silhouette positioned at 150 meters. Firing must be completed 
in 60 seconds. No more than 2 hits are scored for the 50- and 100-meter silhouettes, and 1 hit is 
scored for each 150-meter silhouette. 
SCORING 

The same target sheet is used for every 40-round qualification table that a firer completes. One 
hit is awarded for each round that strikes within or touches some part of the silhouette. A 
maximum of 40 hits is comprised of 3 hits per target at 200, 250, and 300 meters; 4 hits per 
target at 150 meters; and 5 hits per target at 50 and 100 meters. 

• In DA Form 5790-R, the front of the scorecard was changed to remove the following phrase: 
"No more than 4 rounds per target." 



xiv FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 2011 



This page intentionally left blank. 



Field Manual 
No. 3-22.9 



*FM 3-22.9 

Headquarters 

Department of the Army 

Washington, DC, 12 August 2008 



Rifle Marksmanship 
M16-/M4-Series Weapons 

Contents 

Page 
PREFACE xiv 

Chapter 1 MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING 1-1 

Section I. Training Strategy 1-1 

Objectives 1-1 

Marksmanship Training Strategy 1-1 

Training Phases 1-5 

Section II. Unit Marksmanship Training Program 1-8 

Mission-Essential Tasks 1-9 

Training Assessment 1-9 

Trainers 1-11 

Trainer Certification Program 1-13 

Qualification Training 1-15 

Unit Live-Fire Exercises 1-17 

Chapter 2 WEAPON CHARACTERISTICS, ACCESSORIES, AND AMMUNITION 2-1 

Section I. Rifles and Carbines 2-1 

Characteristics of M16-/M4-Series Weapons 2-1 

M4-Series Carbine 2-2 

M16A2/A3 Rifle 2-5 

M16A4 Rifle 2-7 

M16A1 Rifle 2-9 

Section II. Accessory Mounting 2-10 

M4/M5 Adapter Rail System 2-10 

Rail Grabbers 2-13 

Section III. Accessories 2-16 

M68 Close Combat Optic 2-17 

AN/PAQ-4B/C Infrared Aiming Light 2-19 

AN/PEQ-2A/B Target Pointer/Illuminator/Aiming Light 2-21 

AN/PEQ-15 Advanced Target Pointer/Illuminator Aiming Light 2-24 

AN/PAS-13B/C/D (V1) Light Weapon Thermal Sight and AN/PAS-13B/C/D 

(V3) Heavy Weapon Thermal Sight 2-26 

AN/PVS-4 Night Vision Sight 2-28 



DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 
This publication supercedes FM 3-22.9, 24 April 2003. 
10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 



Contents 

Backup Iron Sight 2-30 

Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight 2-31 

Section IV. 10-Meter Boresight and 25-Meter Zero Offset 2-33 

Borelight 2-33 

10-Meter Boresight 2-34 

25-Meter Zero Offset 2-34 

Section V. Ammunition 2-35 

Authorized Ammunition 2-35 

Trajectory 2-37 

Storage 2-39 

Chapter 3 TROUBLESHOOTING AND DESTRUCTION 3-1 

Stoppages 3-1 

Malfunctions 3-2 

Destruction Procedures 3-7 

Chapter 4 PRELIMINARY MARKSMANSHIP INSTRUCTION 4-1 

Section I. Introduction to Basic Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training 4-1 

Clearing 4-2 

Cycles of Functioning 4-4 

Modes of Fire 4-11 

Peer Coaching 4-12 

Section II. Marksmanship Fundamentals I 4-14 

Interceptor Body Armor 4-15 

Four Fundamentals 4-16 

Dominant Eye Training 4-24 

Basic Firing Positions 4-24 

Training Devices and Exercises 4-28 

Section III. Marksmanship Fundamentals II 4-29 

Engagement Skills Trainer 2000 4-29 

Laser Marksmanship Training System 4-30 

Chapters DOWNRANGE FEEDBACK 5-1 

Section I. Grouping Procedures 5-1 

Concept 5-2 

Organization of a 25-Meter Grouping Range 5-2 

Conduct of a 25-Meter Grouping Firing 5-2 

*Shot Group Marking 5-3 

Single Shot Group Analysis 5-4 

Multiple Shot Group Analysis 5-7 

Troubleshooting the Fundamentals 5-14 

Section II. Zeroing Procedures 5-14 

Purpose 5-15 

Sight Variance 5-15 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Contents 



Chapter 6 



Chapter 7 



Organization of a 25-Meter Zero Range 5-15 

Conduct of a 25-Meter Zero Firing 5-15 

Section III. Known Distance Range 5-19 

Concept 5-19 

*Known Distance Target Description 5-20 

*Marking Known Distance Range Targets 5-21 

Known Distance Shot Grouping Analysis 5-22 

*Known Distance Zeroing 5-23 

*Conduct of a Standard Known Distance Range 5-23 

*Known Distance Record Fire Range 5-24 

*Modified Field Fire Range 5-24 

*Record of Performance 5-25 

*25-Meter Zero Standard 5-26 

*Section IV. Effects of Wind and Gravity 5-26 

^Effects of Gravity 5-26 

*EffectsofWind 5-27 

*Section V. Ballistics 5-33 

internal Ballistics 5-33 

*External Ballistics 5-35 

*Terminal Ballistics 5-37 

*Bullet Dispersion at Range 5-37 

FIELD FIRE 6-1 

Section I. Target Detection 6-1 

Locating Targets 6-1 

Marking Targets 6-4 

Range Determination 6-5 

Section II. Field Fire Training 6-6 

Conduct of a Field Fire Range 6-7 

Field Fire I (Single Timed Target) 6-8 

Field Fire II (Multiple or Single Timed Targets) 6-9 

Section III. Record Qualification 6-10 

Practice Record Fire I and II 6-10 

Record Fire 6-13 

Section IV. Alternate Qualification Courses 6-16 

Known Distance Record Fire Range 6-17 

25-Meter Scaled Target Alternate Course 6-18 

15-Meter Scaled Target Alternate Course 6-20 

ADVANCED RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP 7-1 

Section I. Advanced Firing Positions 7-1 

Kneeling Supported Firing Position 7-2 

Standing Unsupported Firing Position 7-3 

Standing Supported Firing Position Around Obstacles 7-4 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



m 



Contents 

Modified Firing Positions 7-5 

Urban Operations Firing Positions 7-6 

Section II. Combat Fire Techniques 7-8 

Rapid Semiautomatic Fire 7-8 

Automatic or Burst Fire 7-12 

Suppressive Fire 7-16 

Quick Fire 7-19 

Section III. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Firing 7-24 

Mission-Oriented Protective Posture Equipment Fire 7-24 

Section IV. Night Fire Training 7-30 

Unassisted Night Fire Training 7-30 

Artificial Illumination Training 7-35 

Section V. Moving Target Engagements 7-36 

Modifications for Moving Target Engagements 7-36 

Moving Target Live-Fire Exercise 7-41 

Section VI. Short-Range Marksmanship Training 7-41 

Conduct of Short-Range Marksmanship Training 7-41 

Fundamentals of Short-Range Marksmanship 7-42 

Preliminary Short-Range Marksmanship Instruction 7-47 

Phase I — Reflexive Fire Training 7-51 

Phase II — Target Discrimination Training 7-53 

Phase III — Short-Range Marksmanship Qualification 7-55 

Phase IV — Shotgun and Automatic or Burst Firing Familiarization 7-57 

*Section VII. Combat field fire 7-57 

*Concept 7-57 

^Conduct 7-58 

*Record of Performance 7-62 

*Section VIM. Squad Designated Marksman Training 7-62 

*Mission of the Squad Designated Marksman 7-62 

*Selection 7-63 

*Squad Designated Marksman Skills Progression 7-63 

Chapter 8 ADVANCED OPTICS, LASERS, AND IRON SIGHTS 8-1 

Section I. Borelight 8-1 

Concept 8-2 

Zeroing the Borelight 8-2 

Boresighting 8-6 

Section II. Training Strategies and Qualification Standards 8-11 

Backup Iron Sight 8-11 

M68 Close Combat Optic 8-12 

Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight 8-16 

AN/PAS-13B/C/D (V1) Light Weapon Thermal Sight and AN/PAS-13B/C/D 

(V3) Heavy Weapon Thermal Sight 8-20 

AN/PAQ-4B/C and AN/PEQ-2A/B Infrared Aiming Lasers 8-23 



iv FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Contents 



AN/PVS-4 Night Vision Device 8-28 

*Appendix A TRAINING AIDS, DEVICES, AND EXERCISES A-1 

Appendix B SCORECARDS B-1 

Appendix C NIGHT FIGHTING C-1 

Appendix D RANGE SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT D-1 

Appendix E RANGE PROCEDURES AND RANGE OPERATIONS CHECKLIST E-1 

*Appendix F 10-METER TARGET OFFSETS AND 25-METER ZERO OFFSETS F-1 

*Glossary Glossary-1 

References References-1 

*lndex lndex-1 



Figures 



Figure 1-1. Initial entry training marksmanship training strategy 1-2 

Figure 1-2. Unit marksmanship sustainment strategy 1-3 

Figure 1-3. Active Army home station marksmanship training strategy 1-4 

Figure 1-4. National Guard home station marksmanship training strategy 1-4 

Figure 1-5. Army Reserve home station marksmanship training strategy 1-5 

Figure 1-6. Deployed unit marksmanship training strategy 1-5 

Figure 2-1. M4/M4A1 carbine with accessories 2-2 

Figure 2-2. M4 MWS with accessories 2-3 

Figure 2-3. M4/M4A1 and M4/M4A1 MWS 2-3 

Figure 2-4. M4/M4A1 or M4 MWS mechanical zero 2-4 

Figure 2-5. M4/M4A1 or M4 MWS battlesight zero 2-4 

Figure 2-6. M16A2/A3 rifle with accessories 2-5 

Figure 2-7. M16A2/A3 mechanical zero 2-6 

Figure 2-8. M16A2/A3 battlesight zero 2-6 

Figure 2-9. M16A4 rifle with accessories 2-7 

Figure 2-10. M16A4 mechanical zero 2-8 

Figure 2-11. M16A4 battlesight zero 2-8 

Figure 2-12. M16A1 rifle 2-9 

Figure 2-13. M16A1 mechanical zero 2-9 

Figure 2-14. M16A1 battlesight zero 2-10 

Figure 2-15. Adapter rail system 2-11 

Figure 2-16. M5 rail covers/heat shields 2-11 

Figure 2-17. Address markings on the adapter rail system 2-12 

Figure 2-18. Vertical pistol grip 2-13 

Figure 2-19. Insight rail grabber 2-14 

Figure 2-20. Insight rail grabber MILES training extender 2-15 

Figure 2-21. Picatinny rail grabber 2-15 

Figure 2-22. M68 close combat optic 2-17 

10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 v 



Contents 



Figure 2-23. Mounting the M68 on an M16A4 rifle or M4-series carbine 2-17 

Figure 2-24. Mounting the M68 on an M16A1/A2/A3 rifle 2-18 

Figure 2-25. Mounting the M68/AN/PVS-14 combination on an M4 MWS 2-19 

Figure 2-26. AN/PAQ-4B/C infrared aiming light 2-19 

Figure 2-27. Mounting the AN/PAQ-4B/C on the M4 MWS top or left 2-20 

Figure 2-28. Mounting the AN/PAQ-4B/C on the M16A1/A2/A3 rifle and M4 carbine 2-21 

Figure 2-29. AN/PEQ-2A/B target pointer/illuminator/aiming light 2-22 

Figure 2-30. Mounting the AN/PEQ-2A/B on the M16A4 rifle and M4 MWS 2-22 

Figure 2-31. Mounting the AN/PEQ-2A/B on M16A1/A2/A3 rifles and M4 carbines 2-23 

Figure 2-32. MILES training extender bracket installation on 

M16-/M4-series weapons 2-24 

Figure 2-33. AN/PEQ-15 advanced target pointer illuminator aiming light 2-25 

Figure 2-34. AN/PEQ-15 mounted on M4 carbine 2-25 

Figure 2-35. AN/PAS-13B/C/D (V1) light weapon thermal sight and 

AN/PAS-13B/C/D(V3) heavy weapon thermal sight 2-26 

Figure 2-36. Mounting the TWS on M16A4 rifle or M4 carbine 2-26 

Figure 2-37. Mounting the TWS on an M16A1/A2/A3 rifle 2-27 

Figure 2-38. AN/PVS-4 night vision sight 2-28 

Figure 2-39. Mounting the AN/PVS-4 on an M4 carbine or M4 MWS 2-28 

Figure 2-40. Mounting the AN/PVS-4 on an M16A1/A2/A3 rifle 2-29 

Figure 2-41. Backup iron sight 2-30 

Figure 2-42. Backup iron sight in the stowed position 2-30 

Figure 2-43. Advanced combat optical gunsight 2-31 

Figure 2-44. Mounting the ACOG on M16A4 rifle and M4 carbine 2-31 

Figure 2-45. Mounting the ACOG on an M16A1/A2/A3 rifle 2-32 

Figure 2-46. ACOG locking screw 2-33 

Figure 2-47. Borelight with a 5.56-millimeter mandrel 2-33 

Figure 2-48. 10-meter boresighting target and 25-meter zero offset 2-34 

Figure 2-49. M855 drop during 25-meter zeroing (M16A2 at 8/3+1 , M4 at 6/3) 2-37 

Figure 2-50. Bullet drop of M855 ammunition with M16A2 (8/3) 2-37 

Figure 2-51 . Bullet drop of M855 ammunition with M4 (6/3) 2-38 

Figure 2-52. M4 carbine and M16A2 rifle bullet trajectory comparison 2-38 

Figure 2-53. Bullet drop of M4/M855 during 25-meter zeroing on 6/3 2-39 

Figure 3-1. Failure to feed, chamber, or lock 3-2 

Figure 3-2. Failure to fire 3-4 

Figure 3-3. Other possible malfunctions 3-7 

Figure 4-1. Clearing 4-3 

Figure 4-2. Feeding 4-4 

Figure 4-3. Chambering 4-5 

Figure 4-4. Locking 4-6 

Figure 4-5. Firing 4-7 

Figure 4-6. Unlocking 4-8 



VI 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Contents 

Figure 4-7. Extracting 4-8 

Figure 4-8. Ejecting 4-9 

Figure 4-9. Cocking 4-10 

Figure 4-10. Semiautomatic and automatic fire mode selector positions 4-11 

Figure 4-11. Burst fire mode selector position 4-11 

Figure 4-12. Prone position of coach (right-handed firer) 4-14 

Figure 4-13. Interceptor body armor 4-15 

Figure 4-14. Steady position 4-17 

Figure 4-15. Correct sight alignment 4-19 

Figure 4-16. Focus of the eye and correct sight picture 4-20 

Figure 4-17. Side aiming technique 4-21 

Figure 4-18. Breath control for engaging single targets 4-22 

Figure 4-19. Breath control for engaging short-exposure targets 4-22 

Figure 4-20. Individual foxhole supported firing position 4-25 

Figure 4-21. Basic prone unsupported firing position 4-26 

Figure 4-22. Alternate prone unsupported firing position 4-26 

Figure 4-23. Basic prone supported firing position 4-27 

Figure 4-24. Alternate prone supported firing position 4-27 

Figure 4-25. Kneeling unsupported firing position 4-28 

Figure 5-1. 25-meter range 5-2 

Figure 5-2. Shot group marking 5-4 

Figure 5-3. Central point of an odd-shaped group 5-4 

Figure 5-4. 25-meter match grade performance 5-5 

Figure 5-5. Shot groups with no firer error 5-5 

Figure 5-6. Shot groups with minor shooting error 5-6 

Figure 5-7. Shot groups with considerable shooting error 5-6 

Figure 5-8. Shot groups with major shooting error 5-7 

Figure 5-9. Central point of three shot groups 5-8 

Figure 5-10. Acceptable shot grouping performance 5-8 

Figure 5-11. Shot groups with inconsistent aiming 5-9 

Figure 5-12. Shot groups with consistent aiming and major shooting error 5-10 

Figure 5-13. Shot groups with inconsistent aiming and major shooting error 5-11 

Figure 5-14. Shot groups with improper vertical placement 5-12 

Figure 5-15. Improper shot groups on the edge of the target 5-13 

Figure 5-16. Correct aiming (A), initial shot group results (B) 5-16 

Figure 5-17. Final shot group results 5-16 

Figure 5-18. M16A1 25-meter zero target 5-17 

Figure 5-19. M16A2and M4 25-meter zero target 5-18 

*Figure 5-20. Downrange feedback targets 5-21 



Figu 
Figu 



e 5-21. Target marking with spotters (markers) 5-21 

e 5-22. Comparison of firing performance 5-22 



*Figure 5-23. Known distance range 5-25 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



VII 



Contents 



*Figure 5-24. 25-meter zero standard 5-26 

*Figure 5-25. M16-/M4-series weapon aiming points 5-27 

*Figure 5-26. Determine wind value using the clock method 5-28 

*Figure 5-27. Determine wind speed using the flag method 5-29 

*Figure 5-28. Determine wind speed using the pointing method 5-30 

*Figure 5-29. Calculate the adjusted point of aim based on wind speed 5-31 

*Figure 5-30. M1 6-/M4-series weapons adjusted point of aim based on wind speed 5-32 

*Figure 5-31. Projectile differences 5-33 

*Figure 5-32. Ammunition impact comparison 5-34 

*Figure 5-33. Minute of angle 5-38 

*Figure 5-37. Increase in shot group size as range increases 5-38 

Figure 7-1. Kneeling supported firing position 7-2 

Figure 7-2. Standing unsupported firing position 7-3 

Figure 7-3. Standing supported firing position around obstacles 7-4 

Figure 7-4. Modified supported prone firing position 7-5 

Figure 7-5. Firing overa rooftop 7-6 

Figure 7-6. Firing around an obstacle 7-7 

Figure 7-7. Firing from a window 7-8 

Figure 7-8. Landscape target 7-18 

Figure 7-9. Aimed quick fire 7-20 

Figure 7-10. Pointed quick fire 7-21 

Figure 7-1 1 . Sight picture when canting the rifle while wearing a protective mask 

(75-meter target) 7-26 

Figure 7-12. Engagement of 175-meter target 7-27 

Figure 7-13. Engagement of 300-meter target 7-27 

Figure 7-14. Lower weapon — target alignment 7-32 

Figure 7-15. Daytime field of view using pinpoint focus 7-33 

Figure 7-16. Nighttime field of view using off-center vision 7-33 

Figure 7-17. Night-fire target 7-34 

Figure 7-18. Lead requirement based on distance and approach angle 7-37 

Figure 7-19. Sight-target relationship for the single-lead rule 7-38 

Figure 7-20. Lead increasing at greater ranges 7-38 

Figure 7-21 . Target movement (distance) at various angles 7-39 

Figure 7-22. High ready position 7-43 

Figure 7-23. Low ready position 7-44 

Figure 7-24. Lethal zone 7-46 

Figure 7-25. Incapacitation zone 7-46 

Figure 7-26. Right-side parallel magazine changing method 7-49 

Figure 7-27. Left-side parallel magazine changing method 7-49 

Figure 7-28. Right-side L-shaped magazine changing method 7-50 

Figure 7-29. Left-side L-shaped magazine changing method 7-51 

Figure 7-30. Dimensions and placement of bowling pin targets 7-51 



viii FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 2011 



Contents 

*Figure 7-31. Combat field fire barricade 7-59 

*Figure 7-32. Combat field fire — kneeling unsupported position 7-60 

*Figure 7-33. Combat field fire — barricade supported position 7-60 

*Figure 7-34. Combat field fire — prone unsupported position 7-61 

*Figure 7-35. Bullet trajectory comparison 7-71 

*Figure 7-36. Windage effects of a 10-mph crosswind 7-72 

Figure 8-1. Example of a zeroing mark 8-3 

Figure 8-2. Borelight in the START POINT position 8-4 

Figure 8-3. Borelight in the HALF-TURN position 8-4 

Figure 8-4. Example of a start point, half-turn, and reference point 8-5 

Figure 8-5. Close combat optic, 25-meter zeroing target 8-15 

Figure 8-6. Width of horizontal hash marks 8-18 

Figure 8-7. Advanced combat optical gunsight reticle point of aim at 100 meters 8-18 

Figure 8-8. Advanced combat optical gunsight reticle point of aim at 25 meters 8-19 

Figure 8-9. Example of thermal weapon sight zeroing adjustments 8-22 

Figure 8-10. Example of shot group adjustment with strike zone 8-26 

Figure A-1 . Engagement skills trainer (five-lane configuration) A-1 

Figure A-2. Exercise 1 A-8 

Figure A-3. Exercise 2 A-10 

Figure A-4. Exercise 3 A-11 

Figure A-5. Exercise 4 A-1 2 

Figure A-6. M15A1 aiming card A-1 5 

Figure A-7. Riddle sighting device A-1 6 

Figure A-8. M16 sighting device A-1 7 

Figure A-9. Blank firing attachment A-1 8 

Figure A-10. Weaponeer set up in the standing supported position A-21 

Figure A-11. Replay of shot A-22 

Figure A-1 2. Weaponeer printouts A-23 

Figure A-1 3. Target box exercise A-24 

Figure A-14. Rifle-holding device (TA-G-12A) A-25 

Figure A-15. Staked rifle holding box A-25 

Figure A-16. Paper being placed on a stationary object A-26 

Figure A-17. Target box paddle (DVC-T-7-86) A-27 

Figure B-1. Example of completed DA Form 5239-R 

(100-, 200-, and 300-Meter Downrange Feedback Scorecard) B-2 

Figure B-2. Example of completed DA Form 3601-R (Single Target — Field Fire I Scorecard) B-2 

Figure B-3. Example of completed DA Form 5241 -R 

(Single and Multiple Targets — Field Fire II Scorecard) B-3 

Figure B-4. Example of completed DA Form 3595-R (Record Fire Scorecard) B-3 

*Figure B-5. Example of DA Form 5789-R (Record Fire Scorecard — 

Known Distance Course) B-4 

*Figure B-6. Example of completed DA Form 5790-R 

(Record Fire Scorecard — Scaled Target Alternate Course) B-4 

10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 ix 



Contents 



Figure B-7. Example of completed DA Form 7489-R (Record Night Fire Scorecard) B-5 

Figure B-8. Example of completed DA Form 7649-R 

(Squad Designated Marksman — Record Fire I and II) B-5 

*Figure B-9. Example of completed DA Form 7682-R (Combat Field Fire Scorecard) B-6 

Figure D-1a. Sample DA Form 7566 (Composite Risk Management Worksheet) D-8 

Figure D-1b. Sample DA Form 7566 (Composite Risk Management Worksheet)(page 2) D-9 

Figure E-1. Rifle/machine gun zero range (17801) E-11 

Figure E-2. Automated field fire range (17803) E-12 

Figure E-3. Automated record fire range (17805) E-13 

Figure E-4. Modified record fire range (17806) E-14 

Figure E-5. Qualification training range (17809) E-15 

Figure F-1. 10-meter target offset symbols F-1 

Figure F-2. Blank 10-meter target offset F-3 

Figure F-3. M16A2 10-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets F-4 

Figure F-4. M4 MWS 10-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets F-4 

Figure F-5. M4/M4A1 10-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets F-5 

Figure F-6. M16A4 MWS 1 0-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets F-5 

*Figure F-7. 200-meter zero of the back-up iron sights for M4 carbine F-9 

*Figure F-8. 200-meter zero of the iron sights/back-up iron sights 

for M16-series weapons F-10 

*Figure F-9. 200-meter zero of the close combat optic for M16-series weapons F-10 

*Figure F-10. 300-meter zero of the advanced combat optical gunsight F-1 1 

*Figure F-11. Advanced combat optical gunsight points of aim (100 to 300 meters) F-1 1 



Tables 

Table 1-1. Training simulators, devices, and exercises 1-17 

Table 2-1. Characteristics of M16-/M4-series weapons 2-1 

Table 2-2. Point of impact for the M4/M4A1 and M4 MWS 2-5 

Table 2-3. Point of impact for the M16A2/A3 rifle 2-7 

Table 2-4. Point of impact for the M16A4 rifle 2-9 

Table 2-5. Point of impact for the M16A1 rifle 2-10 

Table 2-6. Accessory compatibility and mounting 2-16 

Table 2-7. Characteristics of various accessories 2-16 

Table 2-8. Authorized ammunition 2-35 

Table 2-8. Authorized ammunition (continued) 2-36 

Table 3-1. Other malfunctions 3-6 

Table 3-2. Methods of destruction and their applications 3-8 

Table 4-1 . Introduction to basic rifle marksmanship and mechanical training 4-1 

Table 4-2. Marksmanship Fundamentals I training program 4-14 

Table 4-3. Marksmanship Fundamentals II training program 4-29 



FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 2011 



Contents 

Table 5-1. Grouping procedures 5-1 

Table 5-2. Techniques used to identify errors in Soldiers' application of the 

fundamentals 5-14 

Table 5-3. Zeroing procedures 5-14 

*Table 5-4. Downrange feedback 5-20 

*Table 5-5. M16A2/3 and front sightpost of an M16A4 5-23 

*Table 5-6. M4/M4A1 and windage of an M16A4 5-31 

*Table 5-7. Drift for 10 mile-per-hour wind using M855 ammunition 5-32 

Table 6-1. Field Fire I and II training program 6-1 

Table 6-2. Number of rounds that must be fired from each position during Field Fire 1 6-8 

Table 6-3. Field Fire I firing tables 6-9 

Table 6-4. Number of rounds that must be fired from each position during Field Fire II 6-10 

Table 6-5. Field Fire II firing tables 6-10 

Table 6-6. Practice Record Fire I and II training program 6-11 

Table 6-7. Number of rounds that must be fired from each position during Practice 

Record Fire I and II 6-11 

Table 6-8. Qualification ratings for Practice Record Fire I and II 6-12 

Table 6-9. Record Fire training program 6-13 

Table 6-10. Probability of hits 6-14 

Table 6-11. Results from an adequate unit training program 6-14 

Table 6-12. Number of rounds that must be fired from each position during Record Fire 6-14 

Table 6-13. Qualification ratings for Record Fire 6-16 

Table 6-14. Known distance record fire range firing tables and related information 6-17 

Table 6-15. Qualification ratings for the known distance record fire range 6-18 

*Table 6-16. 25-meter scaled target alternate course firing tables and related 

information 6-19 

Table 6-17. Qualification ratings for the 25-meter scaled target alternate course 6-20 

Table 7-1. Rapid semiautomatic fire training program 7-11 

Table 7-2. Rapid semiautomatic fire training and related information 7-11 

Table 7-3. Automatic or burst fire training program 7-15 

Table 7-4. Automatic or burst fire training and related information 7-15 

Table 7-5. Suppressive fire training program 7-18 

Table 7-6. Suppressive fire training and related information 7-19 

Table 7-7. Quick fire training program 7-24 

Table 7-8. Quick fire training and related information 7-24 

Table 7-9. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear fire training program 7-28 

Table 7-10. Unassisted night fire training program 7-30 

Table 7-11. Artificial illumination training program 7-35 

Table 7-12. Moving target engagement training program 7-36 

Table 7-13. Modifications for a steady position when firing at moving targets 7-37 

Table 7-14. Angle of target movement 7-39 

Table 7-15. Target angle when dead center; hits occur using the single-lead rule 7-40 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 xi 



Contents 



Table 7-16. Short-range marksmanship training program 7-42 

Table 7-17. Preliminary SRM tasks and explanation 7-48 

Table 7-18. Familiarization (stationary) 7-52 

Table 7-19. Familiarization (moving) 7-53 

Table 7-20. Record and practice fire 7-55 

Table 7-21. Barricade transition fire 7-57 

*Table 7-22. Combat field fire training program 7-58 

*Table 7-23. Targets fired from the kneeling unsupported position 7-60 

*Table 7-24. Targets fired from the barricade supported position-Set 1 7-61 

*Table 7-25. Targets fired from the barricade supported position-Set 2 7-61 

*Table 7-26. Targets fired from the prone unsupported position-Set 1 7-61 

*Table 7-27. Targets fired from the prone unsupported position-Set 2 7-62 

*Table7-28. Ratings for combat field fire 7-62 

*Table 7-29. Zero/zero confirmation firing event 7-66 

*Table 7-30. Elevation knob, M16A2/3 and front sightpost, M16A4 7-70 

*Table 7-31. Elevation knob, M4/M4A1 and windage, M16A4 7-70 

*Table 7-32. Known distance (mech. adj.) firing event 7-70 

*Table 7-33. Calculated adjusted point of aim based on wind speed (full value) 7-72 

*Table 7-34. Drift for 10-mph wind using M855 ammunition when fired from M16A2 

rifle with 300-meter battlesight zero 7-73 

*Table 7-35. Firing event, known distance (hold off) 7-73 

*Table 7-36. Firing event, Record Fire I and II 7-73 

Table 8-1. Weapon/aided-vision device combinations 8-1 

Table 8-2. Borelight training program 8-2 

Table 8-3. Backup iron sights training program 8-1 1 

Table 8-4. M68 close combat optic training program 8-13 

Table 8-5. Advanced combat optical gunsight training program 8-17 

Table 8-6. AN/PAS-13B/C/D thermal weapon sight training program 8-20 

Table 8-7. AN/PAQ-4B/C or AN/PEQ-2A/B infrared aiming laser training program 8-24 

Table 8-8. AN/PVS-4 night vision device training program 8-28 

Table A-1. Laser marksmanship training strategy parts list A-5 

Table A-1. Laser marksmanship training strategy parts list (continued) A-6 

Table A-2. Action, conditions, and standards for a reflective target exercise A-8 

Table A-3. Action, conditions, and standards for an interactive dry-fire exercise A-9 

Table A-4. Action, conditions, and standards for a grouping and zeroing exercise A-10 

Table A-5. Action, conditions, and standards for a laser marksmanship training 

strategy prequalification exercise A-11 

Table A-6. Training aids and devices A-13 

Table A-7. Target ordering numbers A-1 4 

Table D-1. Five levels of probability D-4 

Table D-2. Four levels of severity D-5 

Table D-3. Risk assessment matrix D-5 



xii FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Contents 

Table D-4. Four levels of risk D-6 

Table D-5. Worksheet instructions D-10 

Table E-1. Primary/alternate range selection E-10 

Table F-1. Offset mounting F-6 

Table F-1. Offset mounting (continued) F-7 

Table F-1. Offset mounting (continued) F-8 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 xiii 



Preface 

This manual provides guidance for planning and executing training on the 5.56-millimeter M16-series rifle 
(M16A1/A2/A3/A4) and M4 carbine. It is a guide for commanders, leaders, and instructors to develop training 
programs, plans, and lessons that meet the objectives or intent of the United States Army rifle marksmanship 
program and FM 7-0. 

This manual is organized to lead the trainer through the material needed to conduct training during initial entry 
training (IET) and unit sustainment training. Preliminary subjects include discussion on the weapon's 
capabilities, mechanical training, and the fundamentals and principles of rifle marksmanship. Live-fire 
applications are scheduled after the Soldier has demonstrated preliminary skills. 

This manual was revised to include references to new materiel and systems. This revision includes — 

• The new Army total marksmanship training strategy, to include specific strategies for the United 
States Army Reserve (USAR) and the Army National Guard (ARNG). 

• Information about the advanced combat optical gunsight (ACOG), the AN/PEQ-15 advanced 
target pointer/illuminator aiming light (ATPIAL), various thermal sights, and the MK 262 round. 

• Information about the alternate qualification record fire courses (known distance [KD] record 
fire, 25-meter scaled target alternate course, 15-meter scaled target alternate course). 

• Information about the rapid magazine change and barricade transition fire for short-range 
marksmanship (SRM). 

• Changes to all of the scorecards. 

• Updated terminology. 

*This publication prescribes DA Form 3595-R (Record Fire Scorecard), DA Form 3601-R (Single Target — 
Field Firing Scorecard), DA Form 5239-R (100-, 200-, and 300-Meter Downrange Feedback Scorecard), DA 
Form 5241 -R (Single and Multiple Targets — Field Firing Scorecard), DA Form 5789-R (Record Firing 
Scorecard — Known-Distance Course), DA Form 5790-R (Record Firing Scorecard — Scaled Target Alternate 
Course), DA Form 7489-R (Record Night Fire Scorecard), DA Form 7649-R (Squad Designated Marksman — 
Record Fire I and II Scorecard), DA Form 7650-R (Squad Designated Marksman — Position Evaluation), and 
DA Form 7682-R (Combat Field Fire Scorecard). 

This publication applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard (ARNG)/National Guard of the United 
States (ARNGUS), and the US Army Reserve (USAR). 

Terms that have joint or Army definitions are identified in both the glossary and the text. Terms for which FM 
3-22.9 is the proponent FM are indicated with an asterisk in the glossary. 

Uniforms depicted in this manual were drawn without camouflage for clarity of the illustration. Unless this 
publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns refer to both men and women. 

The proponent for this publication is the US Army Training and Doctrine Command. The preparing agency is 
the Maneuver Center of Excellence (MCoE). You may send comments and recommendations by any means 
(US mail, e-mail, fax, or telephone) as long as you use DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications 
and Blank Forms) or follow its format. Point of contact information is as follows: 

E-mail: benn.29IN.229-S3-DOC-LIT@conus.army.mil 

Phone: Commercial: 706-545-8623 

DSN: 835-8623 
Fax: Commercial: 706-545-8600 

DSN: 835-8600 
US Mail: Commander, MCoE 

ATTN: ATSH-INB 

6650 Wilkin Drive, Building 74, Room 102 

Fort Benning, GA 31905-5593 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 xv 



Downrange Feedback 



NOTES: 1. Since this is not a zeroing exercise, few sight adjustments are made unless the 
shot group is off of or barely on the 25-meter zeroing target. 

2. No sight adjustments should be made until the firer can shoot six consecutive 
shots (two shot groups) inside a 4-centimeter circle. Once this is accomplished, 
the Soldier is ready to conduct zeroing procedures. 

5-5. To conduct a 25-meter grouping firing — 

NOTE: Before beginning the 25-meter grouping firing, each Soldier ensures that his sights are 
set for 2 5 -meter firing. 

(1) The Soldier fires a three-round shot group at the 25-meter zeroing target. 

*NOTE: During IET, Soldiers fire three 5-round shot groups at the 25-meter zeroing target. To 
achieve the standard, 8 out of 1 rounds in two consecutive shot groups must hit within a 4-cm 
circle. 

(2) The firing line is cleared, and the Soldier and coach move downrange to examine the shot group 
for fundamental errors, triangulate the shot group, and put the number 1 in the center of the shot 
group (Figures 5-2 and 5-3). 

NOTE: If the shot group is off of the 25-meter zeroing target, the Soldier should mechanically 
zero the weapon. If the shot group is barely on the target, the Soldier should make a bold 
adjustment. 

*(3)The Soldier returns to the firing line and fires a second shot group. 

(4) The firing line is cleared, and the Soldier moves downrange to examine the second shot group, 
triangulate, and mark the center of the shot group with the number 2. 

(5) The Soldier groups the two shot groups and marks the center. 

*5-6. The Soldier repeats Steps 1 through 5 until he places six out of six consecutive rounds inside a 
4-centimeter circle. If the Soldier has not grouped with the rounds allotted, he should be removed from the 
firing line and given remedial training before attempting to group again. 

*NOTE: Grouping standard for IET: Group an Ml 6 Series Rifle/M4 Carbine on a 25m zero 
target by achieving 8 out of 1 rounds in two consecutive five-round shot groups within a 4cm 
circle within 10 rounds. 

NOTE: To be counted, the majority of the round must be inside of the circle. 

*5-7. Once the Soldier has demonstrated firing proficiency from the supported firing position, grouping 
exercises can be conducted from the unsupported firing position. 

SHOT GROUP MARKING 

5-8. If the Soldier is to benefit from this exercise and if the instructor/trainer (or coach) is to provide 
useful guidance, the Soldier must mark each shot group for a clear record of his firing practice. The 
instructor/trainer must understand how to analyze shot groups correctly. 

5-9. To properly mark the shot groups (Figure 5-2) — 

(1) Connect the three bullet holes on the target with a straight line. 

(2) Place a number inside of the shot group. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 5-3 



Chapter 5 



NOTES: 1. The number represents the center of the three shots. 

2. When two shots are near one end of the group and the third shot is toward the 
other end, the number is placed closer to the two near shots (Figure 5-3). 

3. This is not a precise marking that requires a measurement, but a procedure to 
help with shot group analysis. 

5-10. The three-round shot group allows the firer's performance to be evaluated. 



• • 

• 


V 


V 



Figure 5-2. Shot group marking. 




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1 

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Figure 5-3. Central point of an odd-shaped group. 
SINGLE SHOT GROUP ANALYSIS 

5-11. The purpose of single shot group analysis is to identify firer errors on the single shots of a shot group 
so the Soldier can correct these errors while firing the next shot group. 

5-12. Shot group analysis begins with the instructor/trainer observing the Soldier while he fires, looking 
for proper position, aim, trigger squeeze, and breathing. Then, the instructor/trainer analyzes the shot group 
to confirm problem areas. 

NOTE: Coaches should not use shot group analysis without observing the firer. 

5-13. The ideal shot group will have all three rounds within a 2-centimeter circle. Three rounds within a 
4-centimeter circle is the minimum standard. 

NOTE: M16A2 zeroing target squares are .96 centimeter in size, while M4 zeroing target 
squares are 1.3 centimeters in size. 



5-4 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



5-45. To conduct a 25-meter zero range- 



NOTES: 1 . Each Soldier ensures that his sights are set for 25-meter zeroing. 

2. Soldiers fire each shot from a supported firing position using the same point of 
aim (target's center of mass). 

3. Ensure that the correct 25-meter zero target is being used. For M16Als, use 
NSN 6920-01-167-1392 (Figure 5-18); for M16A2s, M16A3s, M16A4s, M4s, 
and M4As, use NSN 6920-01-395-2949 (Figure 5-19; M16A2/A3 is printed on 
one side, and M16A4/M4/M4A is printed on the other). 

(1) The Soldier fires a three-round shot group at the 25-meter zeroing target. 

*NOTE: During IET, Soldiers fire three 5-round shot groups at the 25-meter zeroing target. To 
achieve the standard, 8 out of 1 rounds in two consecutive shot groups must hit within a 4-cm 
circle. 

(2) The firing line is cleared, and he moves downrange to examine the shot group for fundamental 
errors, triangulates the shot group, and puts the number 1 in the center of the shot group. 



16 1C 


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1. Aim at target center. Adjust sights to move shot groi 
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2. At completion of zero, rotate rear sight to unmarke 
aperture and weapon will be battlesight zero for 25 
meters. 


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Figure 5-18. M16A1 25-meter zero target. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-17 



Chapter 5 



25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M16A2 

(NSN 6920-01-395-2949) 
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ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M16A2 RIFLE: 

1 - FOR ZEROING AT 25 METERS, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION 
KNOB TO THE 300 METER SETTING, THEN CLOCKWISE (UP) ONE CLICK 
PAST THE 300 METER SETTING. 

2- AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP 
CENTER AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER 
OF THE TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT 
ELEVATION KNOB BACK COUNTER-CLOCKWISE (DOWN) ONE CLICK TO 
THE 300 METER SETTING. THE WEAPON WILL BE ZEROED FOR 300 METERS . 



25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M4 CARBINE 

(NSN 6920-01-395-2949) 



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ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M4 CARBINE: 

1 - FOR ZEROING AT 25 METERS, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB 

TO THE 300 METER (6/3) SETTING. (DO NOT USE THE "Z* MARK ON THE 

ELEVATION KNOB). 

2- AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP CENTER 
AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER OF THE TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETNG THE 25 METER ZERO, THE WEAPON WILL BE ZEROED 
FOR 300 METERS. 



FRONT 



BACK 



Figure 5-19. M16A2 and M4 25-meter zero target. 



NOTES: 1. The Soldier fires two individual shot groups before a sight change is considered. 

2. If the initial shot group is not on the target paper, the weapon should be 
mechanically zeroed before the Soldier fires this weapon again. 

*(3)The Soldier returns to the firing line and fires a second shot group. 

(4) The firing line is cleared, and the Soldier moves downrange to examine the second shot group, 
triangulate, and mark the center of the shot group with the number 2. 

(5) The Soldier groups the two shot groups and marks the center of the two shot groups with an X. 

(6) If the two shot groups fall within a 4-centimeter circle, the firer determines the sight adjustments 
he needs to make, identifies the horizontal and vertical lines closest to the X, and reads the 
25-meter zeroing target to determine the proper sight adjustments. If the two shot groups do not 
fall within a 4-centimeter circle, the Soldier continues grouping. 

NOTE: The majority of the round must be inside of the circle to be counted. 

(7) The Soldier annotates any sight adjustments that need to be made to the weapon on the 25-meter 
zeroing target and ensures that his name is on the target. 

(8) If five out of six rounds fell within the 4-centimeter circle, the Soldier is zeroed and can be removed 
from the firing line. If not, the Soldier returns to the firing line and makes sight adjustments. 

*5-46. Steps 1 through 8 are repeated until the Soldier places five out of six consecutive rounds inside the 
4-centimeter circle. If the Soldier is not zeroed with the rounds allotted, he should be removed from the 
firing line and given remedial training before attempting to zero again. 

NOTE: Zeroing standard for IET: Zero an Ml 6 Series Rifle/M4 Carbine by achieving 8 out of 
10 rounds in two consecutive five-round shot groups inside the 4cm circle on a 25m zero target 
within 20 rounds. 



5-18 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



*5-47. Once firing proficiency has been demonstrated from the supported firing position, zeroing 
exercises can be conducted from the unsupported firing position. 

Conduct of a 25-meter Zero Firing Using the Location of Misses and Hits 
System 

*5-48. When using the LOMAH system on a KD range, zero confirmation is part of the program and will 
be shot as the first scenario. To achieve a 300-meter zero using the LOMAH system, the Soldier shoots six 
rounds at the 175-meter/200-yard target while aiming at the target's center of mass. The outcome is 
evaluated using the following guidelines: 

• If the shot group falls within the 1 1-inch circle on the LOMAH monitor, the Soldier continues the 
programmed scenario, which is identical to the downrange feedback scenario without LOMAH. 

• If the Soldier shoots a shot group that is 1 1 inches or smaller but is clearly not zeroed, the 
instructor/trainer assists the Soldier in making sight adjustments based upon the data provided on 
the LOMAH monitor. 

• If the shot group is not tight (greater than 1 1 inches), the Soldier should be removed from the firing 
line and given remedial training on the four fundamentals of marksmanship. 

* Conduct of a 200-meter Zero Firing 

*5-49. For a unit deployed to an urban area, many engagements happen at 200 meters or closer. Out to 
200 meters, a 200-meter zero keeps the point of impact closer to the point of aim than a 300-meter zero. 

*5-50. The 200-meter zero is not an alternate to the 300-meter zero; rather, it is a supplemental zero. The 
standard 300-meter zero will continue to be used when units are conducting standard rifle qualification or 
when units are deploying to an area where most engagements occur at distances greater than 200 meters. 

*NOTE: 200-meter zero procedures mirror those of standard zero procedures, with the 
exception of the target offsets. See Appendix F for more information about preparing 200-meter 
zero target offsets for various sights. 



SECTION III. KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE 



This section provides guidelines for the instructor/trainer to conduct a KD range and apply the effects of wind 
and gravity. This section also addresses three types of KD ranges: the standard KD range, the KD record fire 
range, and the modified field fire range. 

NOTE: See Table 5-4 for the current training program. 

CONCEPT 

5-51. A KD range has three primary objectives: 

(1) Fire tight shot groups at a known distance. 

(2) *Make sight adjustments at range while experiencing the effects of wind and gravity. 

(3) Participate in marksmanship testing. 

5-52. KD firing brings the Soldier one step closer to being able to fire during combat. The Soldier is 
provided information concerning the precise hit-or-miss location of every bullet fired. KD firing is 
conducted with a single, clearly visible target at a known distance, and the Soldier can establish a position 
that provides a natural point of aim on that single target. Consider the following: 

• On the standard KD range, Soldiers fire at 100-, 200-, and 300-meter targets without any time 
constraints. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-19 



Chapter 5 

Table 5-4. Downrange feedback. 



DOWNRANGE FEEDBACK 



Instructional Intent 



Reinforce PMI while shooting from the prone supported and unsupported firing positions. 

Build the Soldier's confidence in his ability to hit where he aims while applying the effects of wind and gravity at 
range. 



Special Instructions 



Ensure that — 

• The effects of wind and gravity are thoroughly explained. 

• The rear sight is on the proper setting (M16A2/3=8/3; M16A4 and M4=6/3 flush; M16A1=the unmarked 
aperture, short-range). 

• The rear sight aperture is set on 300, not 800. 



Observables 



Spotters provide correct feedback to firers. 
Soldiers hit 8 of 10 targets at 100 meters. 
Soldiers hit 14 of 20 targets at 200 meters. 
Soldiers hit 5 of 10 targets at 300 meters. 



• On the KD record fire range, Soldiers fire at 100-, 200-, and 300-meter targets with time 
constraints. 

• On the modified field fire range, Soldiers fire at 100-, 200-, and 300-meter targets on a standard 
50- to 300-meter field fire qualification range. 

NOTES: 1. If a qualification range is not available, this exercise may be shot on a standard 
75- to 300-meter field fire range. Targets and target frames must be set up to 
accommodate this training. 

2. On ranges that are built in yards instead of meters, the same KD targets will be 
used. The difference is so small that it does not need to be considered. 

• The KD range does not require Soldiers to detect targets, estimate ranges to targets, scan sectors of 
fire, respond to surprise targets, respond to short-exposure targets, or engage multiple targets. 

• An advantage of a KD range is the ability to see precisely where each bullet hits. To benefit 
from this training, Soldiers must clearly see the results of each firing, whether a group, single 
shot, or 10-round exercise. 

KNOWN DISTANCE TARGET DESCRIPTION 

5-53. Downrange feedback training should include detailed explanations of the targets. Consider the 
following: 

• KD targets are large enough to capture all bullets fired. Standard E-type and F-type silhouettes 
can be used if standard KD targets are not available. 

• *The 16-centimeter circle on 75-meter targets, the 32-centimeter circle on 175-meter targets, and 
the 48-centimeter circle on 300-meter targets equate to the 4-centimeter zeroing target at 25 
meters. If the Soldier's shot group falls within the 4-centimeter circle at 25 meters, it will fall 
within the circle on the target being shot. If the round falls outside of the circle, the round will 
clearly miss the 300-meter target (Figure 5-20). 

• * An X is located in the bottom portion of the circle to show the firer where to aim to achieve a 
center of mass hit when his weapon is zeroed for 300 meters. 

• The grid system on the targets in Figure 5-20 equates to that of the 25-meter zeroing target. For 
example, one click on the front sightpost equals one square on the 25-meter zeroing target and 
also equals one square on the target being shot. Information similar to that on the zeroing target 
has been overprinted to help Soldiers apply sight adjustments. 



5-20 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Downrange Feedback 



iSSBBk 



bis; 
AH !«==■ 



* " 


_■ ; ■• j 
















liwr 








j«mr 






i» 




A 1^1 ■■■llli 




IHbpmi 




mkmkw 




■■■III ■■! 




■■«"»■! 








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75-METER FEEDBACK TARGET 
NSN 6920-01-243-4006 



175-METER FEEDBACK TARGET 
NSN 6920-01-243-4008 



300-METER FEEDBACK TARGET 
NSN 6920-01-243-4007 



*Figure 5-20. Downrange feedback targets. 
MARKING KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE TARGETS 

5-54. When the initial shot group is fired, target spotters/markers (Figure 5-21) should be placed in each 
bullet hole, placing the white side on the silhouette and the black side off of the silhouette. This procedure 
ensures that the firer can see where the rounds impacted and has two benefits: 

• Instructors/trainers can observe the firer' s performance and focus their attention on the Soldiers 
having the greatest problems. 

• Soldiers are motivated to fire better since their peers can observe their performance. 

*5-55. On the second and subsequent shot groups, the target spotters/markers should be moved and placed 
in the holes of the new shot group. The old holes must be pasted using black pasters on black and white 
pasters on white. Failure to paste all bullet holes makes it difficult to determine one shot group from another. 




Figure 5-21. Target marking with spotters (markers). 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-21 



Chapter 5 



KNOWN DISTANCE SHOT GROUPING ANALYSIS 

5-56. Figure 5-22 shows two targets that were both shot with three individual rounds (A). On a pop-up 
target, these two firing performances would provide the same information to the firing line; each target was 
hit once and missed twice. Once the targets are properly marked with spotters, it becomes clear why only 
one round hit either target: The firer on the left is failing to properly apply the four fundamentals; the firer 
on the right needs to make an adjustment to his iron sights (assuming that wind was not a factor), 
triangulate the shot group, and read the appropriate adjustments from the target. 

5-57. Figure 5-22 shows another two targets that were both shot with three individual rounds (B). On a 
pop-up target, these two firing performances would appear to be the same. Once properly marked with 
spotters, it is obvious that the firer on the left needs more training on the four fundamentals. 




75 meters. 

TT-rr H T 1 T I t T 1 1 1 11 1 M 1 I i 




B. 1 75 meters. 




a-. ; ; ;; ; . 


= =>. -4~ 


~~ 




— 




: ^? 


^: r: 


"*"+7 


> 






::::::(• 




Y - -^ 


^._ZI ., .. 


^_ 




—. _ 


. 


■ -» 


: :J::: 




-31 - 


» i * * lit 


it j « • « » 


::::±t:: 





Figure 5-22. Comparison of firing performance. 



5-22 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



KNOWN DISTANCE ZEROING 

5-58. The 300-meter target can be used to confirm weapon zero or to refine the zero obtained on the 
25-meter range. When Soldiers properly compensate for the wind, the zero on this target is more valid than 
the zero obtained on the 25-meter range. Soldiers should fire two five-round shot groups to confirm zero or 
three-round shot groups to refine their zero. The pit crews should spot targets after each shot group is fired. 
If the crosswind exceeds five miles per hour, KD zeroing should not be attempted. 

*NOTES: 1. For M16A2/3/4, M4, and M4A1 weapons only: Soldiers should use the 
unmarked aperture for zeroing and target engagement at all distances on the KD 
range. When engaging targets beyond 300 meters, the elevation wheel should be 
adjusted to the range of the target. When zeroed at 300 meters, the numbers on 
the elevation wheel correspond to the range of the target (expressed in meters). 
For example, the firer would click the elevation wheel to 4 to engage a 
400-meter target. 

2. For M16A1 rifles only: Soldiers should use the unmarked aperture (short-range) 
for refining zero at 300 meters. For target engagements beyond the 300-meter 
line, Soldiers should use the long-range aperture (L). 

*Minute of Angle 

*5-59. M16A2/A4 and M4 sights are calibrated in minutes of angle (MO As). A MOA is a unit of angular 
measurement that is used to tell how much a click on the iron sight or scope will move the strike of the 
round. One minute of angle is equal to approximately 1 inch per 100 yards or meters. The difference 
between yards and meters is minimal; therefore, they are used interchangeably when speaking in MOAs. 
Table 5-5 shows the value of clicks in MOAs for iron sights. 

Table 5-5. Value of clicks in minutes of angle for iron sights (for 1 click). 



WEAPON 


1 CLICK 


ELEVATION KNOB 


WINDAGE KNOB 


FRONT SIGHTPOST 


M16A2 


1 MOA 


1 / 2 MOA 


1 Va MOA 


M16A4 


1 / 2 MOA 


1 / 2 MOA 


1 % MOA 


M4 


% MOA 


% MOA 


1 1 / 2 MOA 



CONDUCT OF A STANDARD KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE 

NOTE: If the range is equipped with the LOMAH system, a firing order will be used to operate 
the LOMAH throughout the period of instruction and will be fired last. 

*5-60. Standard KD ranges (Figure 5-23) are conducted using the following considerations: 

• *The standard KD range is conducted with paper targets at 100, 200, and 300 meters to obtain 
downrange feedback. 

• Half of the bullets are fired from the supported firing position, and the other half are fired from 
the unsupported firing position. 

• The wind speed and direction must be determined before firing, and the firer must know the 
distance to the target. 

• ^Soldiers mark the targets after firing each shot group. Based on this feedback, Soldiers receive 
a critique from their instructor/trainer or coach. 

• The downrange feedback exercise must be conducted within the constraints of time, 
ammunition, and available ranges. 

• If 30 rounds of ammunition are available for training, firing three-round shot groups 10 times is 
preferable to firing five-round shot groups 6 times. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-23 



Chapter 5 



• Once the Soldier understands the concept for adjusting the point of aim to compensate for the 
effects of wind and gravity, he is ready to apply his knowledge on the field fire range. 

* 100-Meter Targets 

5-61. Instructors/trainers can provide feedback after each round, each three-round shot group, or each 
five-round shot group on the 100-meter feedback targets. No time limit is placed on the firer. Soldiers fire 
from the supported firing position and from the unsupported firing position. Then, the targets are marked 
and evaluated. Feedback consists of a critique of performance, adjustments to the point of aim, effects of 
wind and gravity, and shot placement. Target spotters mark the bullet holes so hits can be viewed from the 
firing line. 

NOTE: IET Soldiers fire one five-round shot group from the supported firing position and one 
five-round shot group from the unsupported firing position. They must hit 8 out of 10 targets. 

*200-Meter Targets 

5-62. Firers engage the 200-meter target using the same downrange procedures as when engaging the 
1 00-meter target. 

NOTE: IET Soldiers fire 10 rounds from the supported firing position and 10 rounds from the 
unsupported firing position. They must hit 14 out of 20 targets. 

300-Meter Targets 

5-63. Firers engage the 300-meter target using the same downrange procedures as when engaging the 
1 00-meter target. 

NOTE: IET Soldiers fire one five-round shot group from the supported firing position and one 
five-round shot group from the unsupported firing position. They must hit 5 out of 10 targets. 

KNOWN DISTANCE RECORD FIRE RANGE 

NOTE: See paragraphs 6-79 through 6-82 of Chapter 6 for information about the alternate 
course KD record fire range. 

MODIFIED FIELD FIRE RANGE 

5-64. A modified field fire range can be used for downrange feedback. To conduct downrange feedback, 
minor changes must be made to a standard field fire range. Target frames, like those used on the 25-meter 
range, are placed on a standard qualification range at 100, 200, and 300 meters. The standard KD range or 
the KD record fire range can be conducted on the modified field fire range. 

NOTE: The firing line must be cleared, moved to the targets for marking, and returned each 
time a firing order fires. 



5-24 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Downrange Feedback 




'SERVICE ROAD" 



JHil-nB 



d> 




UTILITY 
BUILDING 



^ ■ iO O * O ■ O ^ C O ^ o 



400 M LINE 



a d • « c o m 



500 M LINE 



600 M LINE 



1,000 
M 



/ 



1,000 M FIRING LINE 



Figure 5-23. Known distance range. 
RECORD OF PERFORMANCE 

5-65. During the conduct of downrange feedback, a record of performance should be kept on DA Form 
5239-R (100-, 200-, and 300-Meter Downrange Feedback Scorecard) for the AAR. 

NOTE: See Appendix B for a sample completed form and the end of this publication for a 
blank, reproducible copy. 

5-66. As Soldiers complete each phase and achieve the performance standard for that range, they should 
receive a critique. Instructors/trainers must ensure that Soldiers do not progress to a greater range until they 
become proficient at closer ranges. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-25 



Chapter 5 



25-METER ZERO STANDARD 

*5-67. A standard E-type silhouette is 48.26 centimeters wide; a cone of fire that is 48.26 centimeters at 
300 meters is 4 centimeters at 25 meters. A Soldier who can fire all bullets in a 4-centimeter circle at 25 
meters and adjust the sights for zero will hit the target at ranges as far away as 300 meters (Figure 5-24). 




Figure 5-24. 25-meter zero standard. 



SECTION IV. EFFECTS OF WIND AND GRAVITY 



Marksmanship instructors/trainers should know how the effects of wind and gravity influence the flight of the 
bullet, and Soldiers should know how to compensate for such bullet displacement. This instruction is 
appropriate for all marksmanship training and concurrent training. 

EFFECTS OF GRAVITY 

5-68. Gases created by gunpowder push each round out of the end of the barrel. The barrel must be 
elevated slightly to allow the round to travel farther, creating an arc. The round will travel straight until it 
slows down and is gradually pulled to the ground by gravity. Each round fired will be pushed 
approximately the same distance and will roughly follow the same path. 

NOTE: The farther the round travels, the faster it begins to fall. 

5-69. When the firer zeroes his weapon, he aligns his line of sight to cross the path of the round at the distance 
at which he wants to zero his weapon. For example, a 300-meter zero means that the line of sight crosses the 
path of the round at 300 meters. If the firer engages a target at a distance other than 300 meters (excluding 25 
meters), the path of the round hits the target either before or after it crosses the line of sight. If the firer wants 
his rounds to impact the center of mass, he must adjust his point of aim up or down to account for gravity. 

Adjusted Point of Aim Based on Gravity 

5-70. An adjusted point of aim (Figure 5-25) is intended to increase hit probability when properly presented. 
However, Soldiers can become confused, which could result in degraded performance. All Soldiers should be 
taught to aim at the target's center of mass unless they are confident that they know the range to the target. If 
adjusting the point of aim confuses the Soldier, he should aim at the target's center of mass. These points of aim 
place the center of each shot group in the target's center of mass (assuming a perfect zero and no firer error). 



5-26 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



NOTES: 1. These adjustments are small and should only be applied by competent firers who 
wish to improve their firing performance. 

2. Because the difference between Ml 6- and M4-series weapons is so small and to 
avoid confusion, the same adjusted points of aim should be used regardless of 
the weapon being fired. 




50 METERS 



100 METERS 



150 METERS 



Figure 5-25. M16-/M4-series weapon aiming points. 
EFFECTS OF WIND 

5-71. Wind affects the bullet similar to the way gravity does: the farther the round travels, the farther the 
wind will push the round in the direction the wind is blowing. The faster the wind is blowing, the farther 
the wind will push the bullet. 

Wind Direction 

5-72. The effects of wind vary depending on changes in wind speed and direction. Wind is classified by the 
direction it is blowing in relationship to the firer/target line. The clock system is used to indicate wind 
direction and value (Figure 5-26). This system works as follows: 

• Winds that blow from the left (9 o'clock) or right (3 o'clock) are called full- value winds because 
they have the most effect on the bullet. 

• Winds that blow at an angle from the front or rear are called half- value winds because they have 
about half the effect on the bullet as full- value winds. 

• Winds that blow straight into the firer's face or winds that blow straight into the target are 
termed no-value winds because they have minimal effect on the bullet. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-27 



Chapter 5 



WINDS FROM LEFT BLOW 

'the BULLET TO THE RIGHT 

WINDS FROM RIGHT BLOW 
THE BULLET TO THE LEFT 





Figure 5-26. Determine wind value using the clock method. 



Wind Speed 



5-73. Wind is variable and sometimes quite different at the firing position than at the target's position. 
Consider the following: 

• When wind is blowing hard at the firing line, trees, brush, or terrain could protect the bullet's 
path. 

• Wind can vary by several miles per hour between the time a measurement is taken and when the 
bullet is fired. 

5-74. Therefore, training time should not be wasted trying to teach Soldiers an exact way to measure wind 
speed. Soldiers should understand that wind can blow a bullet off course, but they should not 
overcompensate and miss targets by applying too much hold-off. 

5-75. A wind gauge can be used for precise measurement of wind velocity. When a gauge is not available, 
velocity is estimated using one of the following methods: 

• Flag method. 

• Pointing method. 

• Observation method. 



5-28 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



Flag Method 

5-76. To perform the flag method (Figure 5-27) — 

(1) Observe a flag or any cloth-like material hanging from a pole. 

(2) Estimate the angle formed at the juncture of the flag and pole. 

(3) Divide this angle by the number 4. 



NOTE: The answer is the wind velocity expressed in miles per hour. 




WIND 



Flags should be at the target line and firing 
line for comparision of wind conditions. 



40° 

— =10MPH 
4 



Figure 5-27. Determine wind speed using the flag method. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-29 



Chapter 5 



Pointing Method 

5-77. If a flag is not visible, the firer can use the pointing method. To perform the pointing method (Figure 
5-28)— 

(1) Drop a piece of paper, leaf, or other light material from the shoulder. 

(2) Point directly at the place where it lands. 

(3) Estimate the angle created by the pointing arm. 

(4) Divide this angle by the number 4. 

NOTE: The answer is the approximate wind speed at the firing position expressed in miles per 
hour. 



Pointing Method 



10MPHWIND 




= 10MPH 



Figure 5-28. Determine wind speed using the pointing method. 

Observation Method 

5-78. If the flag or pointing methods cannot be used, the following information can assist in determining 
wind velocities: 

• Winds less than 3 miles per hour can barely be felt by the firer, but the presence of slight wind 
can be determined by drifting smoke. 

• Winds of 3 to 5 miles per hour can be felt lightly over the firer' s face. 

• Winds of 5 to 8 miles per hour constantly move the leaves of trees. 

• Winds of 8 to 12 miles per hour raise dust and loose paper. 

• Winds of 12 to 15 miles per hour cause small trees to sway. 



5-30 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



Adjusted Point of Aim Based on Wind Speed 

5-79. Figure 5-29 illustrates how the effects of wind on the bullet are similar to the effects of gravity — as 
range increases, the effect of wind increases. For example, a 10 mile-per-hour full-value wind moves an 
M16A1 (Ml 93) bullet from about Vi of an inch at 25 meters to about 15 inches at 300 meters. 

*5-80. Table 5-6 displays the wind effects for all conditions for the M16A1 (Ml 93 ammunition) — a wind 
of greater speed increases bullet movement by a uniform amount. For example, a 1 5 mile-per-hour wind 
moves the bullet 3 A of an inch at 25 meters and about 22 Vi inches at 300 meters. A half-value wind moves 
the strike of the round in a 10 mile-per-hour wind l A of an inch at 25 meters and 7 Vi inches at 300 meters. 




48 464442 4038 36 34 32 3028 26 24 22 20.18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 

iiiiiiiiliiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.i.ni»iMii.i|iii 



INCHES 

Blowing from 3 o'clock on an M193 bullet. 




475 
-450 
-425 

-400 
-375 
-350 
-325 
300 
-275 
-250 
-225 
200 
-175 
-150 
-125 
-100 
75 
50 
25 



Figure 5-29. Calculate the adjusted point of aim based on wind speed. 

*NOTE: Table 5-6 can be used to calculate the Ml 93 adjusted point of aim based on wind 
speed. 

Table 5-6. M193 calculated adjusted point of aim based on wind speed (full value). 



WIND 
SPEED 
(mph) 


RANGE (m) 


25 


50 


75 


100 


150 


175 


200 


250 


300 


DISTANCE MOVED (in) 


5 


1/4 


3/8 


1/2 


1 


2 


2.5 


3.5 


5 


7.5 


10 


1/2 


3/4 


1 


2 


4 


5 


7 


10 


15 


15 


3/4 


1-1/8 


1.5 


3 


6 


7.5 


10.5 


15 


22.5 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-31 



Chapter 5 



Drift for A 10 Mile-per-Hour Wind Using 5.56-Millimeter M855 Ammunition 

*5-81. Table 5-7 illustrates the drift using M855 5.56-millimeter ball ammunition fired in an M16A2 rifle 
with a 300-meter battlesight zero. 

Table 5-7. Drift for 10 mile-per-hour wind using M855 ammunition. 



WIND 
SPEED 
(mph) 


RANGE (m) 





100 


200 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


800 


DISTANCE MOVED (in) 


10 


0.0 


1.1 


4.9 


11.8 


22.4 


38.0 


59.5 


88.4 


124.9 



Adjusted Point of Aim Based on Gravity and Wind Speed 

5-82. Wind has a minor effect on the Ml 6 bullet (relative to the size of the target) at ranges out to 100 
meters. When engaging targets in excess of 150 meters in heavy winds, Soldiers adjust the point of aim for 
the wind to increase the probability of a hit. Wind effects are uniform in relation to speed — that is, a 5 
mile-per-hour wind has half the effect of a 10 mile-per-hour wind, and a 20 mile-per-hour wind has twice 
the effect of a 1 mile-per-hour wind. 

5-83. Firers must adjust their points of aim into the wind to compensate for its effects. If they miss a distant 
target and wind is blowing from the right, they should aim to the right for the next shot. A guide for the 
initial adjustment is to split the front sightpost on the edge of the target facing the wind (Figure 5-30). 

5-84. Newly assigned Soldiers should aim at the target's center of mass for the first shot, and then adjust for 
wind when they are confident that wind caused the miss. Experienced firers should apply the appropriate 
hold-off for the first shot, but should follow the basic rule — when in doubt, aim at the center of mass. 



150 METERS 




10 MPH WIND 




250 METERS 




300 METERS 




Figure 5-30. M16-/M4-series weapons adjusted point of aim based on wind speed. 



5-32 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



SECTION V. BALLISTICS 



Commanders and marksmanship trainers must understand some aspects of ballistics to teach the principles of 
zeroing and engagement of long-range targets. Ballistics is a science dealing with the motion and flight 
characteristics of projectiles. The study of ballistics in rifles and carbines is divided into three categories: 

• Internal ballistics. 

• External ballistics. 

• Terminal ballistics. 

INTERNAL BALLISTICS 

5-85. Internal ballistics deals with what happens to the bullet before it leaves the weapon's muzzle. 

5-86. The overall dimensions of the combat service 5.56-millimeter cartridges are the same, which allows 
cartridges to be fired safely in M16-series rifles and M4 carbines, but there are internal differences that 
affect firing accuracy (Figure 5-31). 




0.906 in 
(23.0 mm) 



BALL 
M193 



(29.2 mm) 




TRACER 
M196 




TRACER 

M856 



*Figure 5-31. Projectile differences. 
M855 and Ml 93 Ammunition 

5-87. The M855 bullet is longer and wider than the Ml 93 bullet and has a different configuration. These 
differences require different twists in the barrels, lands, and grooves to stabilize the bullet in flight. These 
differences include the following: 

• The M16A1 has a 1:12 barrel twist (the bullet rotates once for every 12 inches of travel down 
the barrel). 

• The M16A2/A3/A4 and the M4 have a 1 :7 barrel twist (the bullet rotates once for every 7 inches 
of travel down the barrel). 

5-88. The M16A1 does not put enough spin on the heavier M855 bullet to stabilize it in flight, causing 
erratic performance and inaccuracy (Figure 5-32). The shot groups are — 

• 30.48 to 35.56 centimeters (12 to 14 inches) at 91.4 meters (100 yards). 

• 182.88 centimeters (72 inches) at 274.2 meters (300 yards). 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



5-33 



Chapter 5 



NOTE: Although firing the M855 cartridge in the M16A1 rifle is safe, it should only be used in 
a combat emergency, and then only for close ranges of 91.4 meters (100 yards) or less. 

5-89. The M16A2/A3/A4 rifle and M4/M4A1 carbine fire both M193 and M855 ball ammunition with 
little difference in accuracy to a range of 500 meters. The M16A2/A3/A4 and M4/M4A1 and their 
ammunition are more effective than the M16A1 at ranges out to and beyond 500 meters due to better 
stabilization of the round. 

5-90. The three 10-round shot groups in Figure 5-32 (A) were fired by a skilled marksman at a distance of 
274.2 meters (300 yards) and 91.4 meters (100 yards) using the same M16A1 rifle. 

• At 300 yards, the 25.4-centimeter shot group (shown on the left) was fired (and zeroed) with 
Ml 93 ammunition. 

• The 6-foot shot group (shown on the right) was fired with M855 ammunition. 

• At 100 yards, the 35.56-centimeter (14-inch) shot group (shown in the center) was fired with 
M855 ammunition. 

5-91. Figure 5-32 (B) shows two 25.4-centimeter (12-inch) shot groups fired by the same skilled 
marksman at a distance of 274.2 meters (300 yards) using an M16A2 rifle. 

• The shot group on the left was fired and zeroed with M855 ammunition. 

• The shot group on the right was fired using Ml 93 ammunition. 

NOTE: Both Ml 93 and M855 ball ammunition can be used in training and accurately function 
in M16A2/3/4 rifles and M4/M4A1 carbines. Due to the different characteristics of each round, 
zero with the type of ammunition used for training. Do not switch between the types during 
firing. Do not zero with one type, and then fire the other for any type of training. 



/ * 



M16A1 





M193 BALL (300 Yards) 



M855 (1 00 Yards) M855 (300 Yards) 









• 

•• 


• # . 








B 


M16A2/A3/A4 
and M4/M4A1 






• 
« 


• 

9 


• 
• 


• • 




* 


• 



















M855 BALL (300 Yards) M1 93 BALL (300 Yards) 



Figure 5-32. Ammunition impact comparison. 

*5-92. A simple rule of thumb that will preclude any problem is to use only the ammunition specifically 
designed for each weapon (Ml 93 ball ammunition for M16A1 rifles; M855 ball ammunition for 
M16A2/3/4 rifles and M4 carbines). For M855 and M193 ammunition, the difference in a 300-meter zero is 
negligible, and the firer does not need to compensate for it. 



5-34 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Downrange Feedback 



EXTERNAL BALLISTICS 

5-93. External ballistics deals with factors affecting the flight path of the bullet between the weapon's 
muzzle and the target. 

5-94. Soldiers must understand the basics of external ballistics so they can make necessary scope 
adjustments or hold compensations to allow them to hit the target. The external ballistic factors that affect 
bullet trajectory are: 

• Gravity. 

• Muzzle velocity. 

• Air resistance (drag). 

• Altitude or air density. 

• Temperature. 

• Trajectory. 

• Wind. 

• Angles. 

Gravity 

*5-95. The force of gravity on a bullet is constant regardless of its weight, shape, or velocity. 

*NOTE: See paragraphs 5-68 through 5-70 for more information about the effects of gravity. 

Muzzle Velocity 

*5-96. Muzzle velocity is the speed of a bullet as it leaves the barrel, measured in feet per second. The 
bullet begins to slow down as soon as it exits the barrel. 

Air Resistance (Drag) 

5-97. Air resistance, or drag, immediately produces a slowing effect on a bullet. 

Altitude or Air Density 

5-98. The greater the altitude, the thinner the air and the longer the bullet will travel (with a 
correspondingly flatter trajectory). Each 5,000-foot elevation will raise the strike of the bullet Vi to 1 minute 
of angle (MO A). 

Temperature 

5-99. Deviation from standard daytime temperature (59 degrees Fahrenheit/15 degrees Celsius) affects 
bullet trajectory. 

Cold Temperatures 

5-100. Cold air is denser than warm air; the bullet must travel through more tightly packed air particles. 
This causes the bullet to lose velocity, causing the bullet to impact lower than intended. Cooler air also 
causes lower chamber pressure, which reduces the initial velocity. 

Hot Temperatures 

5-101 . Warm or hot temperatures cause the strike of the round to move up. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 5-35 



Chapter 5 

Trajectory 

*5-102. When a projectile exits the barrel, gravity immediately takes effect, causing the bullet to drop from 
the line of departure, otherwise known as the line of bore. As the projectile travels downrange, air drag 
decreases the velocity. These effects create the projectile's trajectory. 

Line of Sight 

5-103. The line of sight is an imaginary straight line extending from the firer's eye through the telescopic 
sight, or rear and front sight, to the target. 

Line of Departure 

5-104. The line of departure is an imaginary straight line extending from the center of the barrel to 
infinity. 

Zero Range 

5-105. Zero range is where the projectile intersects the line of sight. It occurs twice — once on the way up 
and once on the way down. 

Apex 

5-106. Otherwise known as midrange trajectory, the apex is the point where the projectile is at its highest 
in relation to the line of sight. 

Bullet Path 

5-107. The bullet path is the relationship of a projectile and the line of sight at any given range (normally 
expressed in inches). 

Wind 

5-108. External factors influence the trajectory relative to the point of aim, such as wind, altitude, 
temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Wind is by far the most significant. Consider the following 
effects of wind: 

• Because the bullet is moving through the air, the air moves the bullet. Wind deflection is always 
in the same direction the wind is moving. A wind blowing from the left will move the bullet to 
the right. 

• Deflection decreases as the angle of the wind to the line of flight decreases. 

5-109. Effectively reading and correcting for wind effects takes practice, especially at longer ranges 
where accuracy in correcting is more critical. To shoot accurately in the wind, a firer must know the wind 
velocity, the wind direction, and the value of deflection at the range at which he is shooting. 

*NOTE: See paragraph 5-71 for more information on the effects of wind. 



Angles 



5-110. Firing uphill or downhill normally causes the bullet to hit high relative to a horizontal trajectory. If 
the firer is firing on an angle up or down at a slanted range of 1 00 meters, the point of impact will be higher 
than it would be for a level shot of 100 meters. The height depends on the angle. 

5-111. Gravity acts on a bullet only during the horizontal component of its flight (the distance from the 
firer to the target measured as if they were both at the same level). Since the horizontal component will 
always be less than the slanted range, gravity will not pull the bullet down as far as it would if the range 
were level. 



5-36 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Downrange Feedback 



5-112. Firing uphill or downhill causes the wind to affect the shot over the entire slant range. The firer 
should aim at the target as if it were 25 meters away and correct for wind as if it were 400 meters away. 
The correct method for shooting uphill or downhill is to adjust elevation based on the horizontal range and 
correct for wind deflection based on the slanted range. 

TERMINAL BALLISTICS 

5-113. Terminal ballistics deals with what happens to the bullet when it comes in contact with the target. 

5-114. Bullet penetration depends on the range, velocity, bullet characteristics, and target material. 
Greater penetration does not always occur at close range with certain materials, since the high velocity of 
the 5.56-millimeter bullet causes it to disintegrate soon after impact. 

BULLET DISPERSION AT RANGE 

5-115. Instructors/trainers must have a working knowledge of the effects of bullet dispersion and accuracy 
at various ranges. 

Minute of Angle 

5-116. An MOA is the standard unit of measurement used in adjusting a weapon's sights and other 
ballistic-related measurements. It is also used to indicate the accuracy of a weapon. 

*5-l 17. A circle is divided into 360 degrees. Each degree is further divided into 60 minutes. Each minute is 
an MOA (1/60 of a degree). 

5-118. An MOA is an angle beginning at the muzzle that covers 2.54 centimeters at a distance of 91.4 
meters (Figure 5-33). Often, these measurements are expressed as yards; therefore, 1 MOA is 1 inch at 100 
yards, 2 inches at 200 yards, and so on. To further simplify the calculation, meters can be substituted for 
yards. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 5-37 



Chapter 5 




*Figure 5-33. Minute of angle. 
Increase of Shot Group Size 

*5-119. Just as the distance covered by an MOA increases each time the range increases, a shot group can 
be expected to do the same. If there are 2.54 centimeters between bullets on a 25-meter target, there will be 
an additional 2.54 centimeters of dispersion for each additional 25 meters of range. A 2.54-centimeter shot 
group at 25 meters (about 3.5 MOA) is equal to a 25.4-centimeter shot group at 250 meters (Figure 5-34). 




25M 50M 75M 100M 125M 150M 175M 200M 225M 250M 



^Figure 5-34. Increase in shot group size as range increases. 



5-38 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Field Fire 



*Table 6-16. 25-meter scaled target alternate course firing tables and related information. 



TABLE 


POSITION 


TIME 


NUMBER OF ROUNDS 


NUMBER OF 


ADDITIONAL 






CONSTRAINTS 




SILHOUETTES 


INFORMATION 


Table 1 


Prone supported 


120 sec 


20-round magazine, two 


10 silhouettes 


No more than two 




firing position or 




rounds for each 


on the same 


hits for each 




foxhole supported 




silhouette 


target sheet 


silhouette will be 




firing position 








scored for this 
table. 


Table 2 


Prone unsupported 


60 sec 


10-round magazine, one 


10 silhouettes 


No more than one 




firing position 




round for each silhouette 


on the same 
target sheet 


hit for each target 
will be scored for 
this table. 


Table 3 


Kneeling 


60 sec 


10-round magazine, two 


5 silhouettes on 


No more than two 




unsupported firing 




rounds for each 


the same target 


hits for each target 




position 




silhouette at 50 to 100 


sheet (50 to 


will be scored for 








meters and one round at 


150 m) 


this table. 








each 150-meter 












silhouette 







Time Between Firing Positions 

6-85. The time between each firing position is not specified, but enough time should be allotted to allow 
the firer to clear his weapon, quickly change firing positions, and reload before beginning the next firing 
table. 



Duties of Range Personnel 

6-86. The following personnel perform range duties: 

• Officer in charge (OIC). 

• Range safety officer (RSO). 

• Firing line safety crew. 

Officer In Charge 

6-87. The OIC briefs all Soldiers on the proper scoring procedures. 

Range Safety Officer 

6-88. To facilitate the timely flow of the record fire qualification table, the RSO ensures that enough time 
is given between firing positions. 

Firing Line Safety Crew 

6-89. Firing line safety crew personnel — 
Perform as scorers. 

Inform the chief range officer of crossfires. 
Inform the chief range officer of allowable alibis. 
Accurately count hits and misses. 
Count only four hits for each silhouette for score. 
Complete the scorecard. 
Assist the Soldier with target repair. 
Total, sign, and return the completed scorecard to the chief range officer. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



6-19 



Chapter 6 



Scoring 

6-90. One hit is awarded for each round that strikes within or touches some part of the silhouette. If a bullet 
hole does not touch some part of the scaled silhouette, it is counted as a miss. Ricochets are counted as hits 
or misses. 

*6-91. The same target sheet is used for every 40-round qualification table that a firer completes. A 
maximum of 40 hits comprises 3 hits per target at 200, 250, and 300 meters; 4 hits per target at 150 meters; 
and 5 hits per target at 50 and 100 meters. 

6-92. DA Form 5790-R (Record Fire Scorecard — Scaled Target Alternate Course) is used to score 
alternate course record fire qualifications. 

NOTE: See Appendix B for a sample completed form and the end of this publication for a 
blank, reproducible copy. 

6-93. The NSNs for scaled silhouette targets are — 

• *25-meter (NSN 6920-01-167-1398). 

• * 15-meter (NSN 6920-01-167-1396). 

Ratings 

6-94. Qualification ratings for the 25-meter scaled target alternate course are shown in Table 6-17. 
Table 6-17. Qualification ratings for the 25-meter scaled target alternate course. 



QUALIFICATION 
RATINGS 


NUMBER OF 
TARGETS HIT 


Expert 


36 to 40 


Sharpshooter 


30 to 35 


Marksman 


23 to 29 


Unqualified 


22 and below 



15-METER SCALED TARGET ALTERNATE COURSE 

NOTE: Units are permitted to use the 15 -meter scaled alternate course only when standard 
record fire and KD ranges, and 25-meter scaled target alternate courses are unavailable. 

6-95. The 15-meter scaled target alternate course is conducted on a 50-foot indoor range using a .22-caliber 
rimfire adapter (RFA). Qualification is conducted using the 15 -meter alternate course C target 
(NSN 6920-01-167-1396). 

NOTES: 1 . See Appendix A for more information about the RFA. 

2. Prior to qualification, all Soldiers battlesight zero their weapons using the 
15-meter battlesight zeroing target (NSN 6920-01-167-1393). 

3. The conduct of fire, scoring, scorecard, and qualification ratings are the same as 
those used for the 25-meter scaled target alternate course. 



6-20 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



Table 7-21. Barricade transition fire. 



BARRICADE/DISTANCE 


POSITION 


ROUNDS FIRED 


METHOD 


Start with 28-round magazine in the open. 


Open/50 m 


Standing 


2 


Controlled pair 


Kneeling 


2 


Controlled pair 


Prone 


2 


Controlled pair 


Sitting 


2 


Controlled pair 


Tall/50 m 


Left 


2 


Controlled pair 


Right 


2 


Controlled pair 


Short/40 m 


Left 


2 


Controlled pair 


Top 


2 


Controlled pair 


Right 


2 


Controlled pair 


Tall/35 m 


Left 


2 


Controlled pair 


Right 


2 


Controlled pair 


Short/25 m 


Left 


2 


Controlled pair 


Top 


2 


Controlled pair 


Right 


2 


Controlled pair 


Transition back to the tall 35-m barricade. Perform parallel or L-shaped magazine change. Insert 4-round magazine. 


Tall/35 m 


Left 


2 


Controlled pair 


Right 


2 


Controlled pair 


Transition back to short 40-m barricade. Perform parallel or L-shaped magazine change. Insert 4-round magazine. 


Short/40 m 


Left 


2 


Controlled pair 


Right 


2 


Controlled pair 


Transition back to tall 50-m barricade. Perform parallel or L-shaped magazine change. Insert 4-round magazine. 


Tall/50 m 


Left 


2 


Controlled pair 


Right 


2 


Controlled pair 



PHASE IV— SHOTGUN AND AUTOMATIC OR BURST FIRING 
FAMILIARIZATION 

7-227. Shotgun and automatic or burst firing familiarization is no different for SRM than for BRM. 
NOTE: Publications for shotgun firing familiarization are currently being developed. 



"SECTION VII. COMBAT FIELD FIRE 



The objective of combat field fire is to assess and confirm the individual proficiency of firers in performing 
combat-related advanced rifle marksmanship skills, such as engaging multiple target arrays, using multiple hits 
to neutralize a target, assuming combat relevant firing positions, clearing malfunctions, and performing 
magazine changes. 

NOTE: See Table 7-22 for the current training program. 

*CONCEPT 

7-228. Combat field fire should simulate combat conditions by requiring the firer to use single and 
multiple shots to engage 15 targets with different exposure times and ranges. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



7-57 



Chapter 7 

Table 7-22. Combat field fire training program. 

COMBAT FIELD FIRE 

Instructional Intent 

• Reinforce advanced rifle marksmanship skills and apply the techniques of target detection by engaging a course of 
fire with multiple pop-up targets with different exposure times and required hits. 

Special Instructions 

Ensure that — 

• The rear sight is on the proper setting (M16A2/3=8/3; M16A4 and M4=6/3 flush; M16A1 =the unmarked aperture, short-range). 

• The rear sight aperture is set on 300, not 800. 

• The small aperture is being used. 

Observables 



Soldiers apply all aspects of ARM. 

Soldiers transition between stations without being prompted. 

Soldiers perform magazine changes and SPORTS without being prompted. 

Soldiers must attain a minimum of 16 hits to be considered trained. 

Soldiers that do not meet the standard receive remedial training before refiring. 



*CONDUCT 



NOTE: When firing combat field fire, each Soldier must wear the proper uniform: the helmet, 
LBE, and IB A with all SAPI plates (if available). No other armor is required. 

7-229. Combat field fire is performed on a standard qualification range set up so that 15 targets are 
exposed a total of 26 times at ranges from 50 to 300 meters. The target exposures are grouped into firing 
tables by position. The three positions associated with combat field fire are — 

• Kneeling unsupported. 

• Barricade supported. 

• Prone unsupported. 

NOTE: Combat field fire requires the use of a barricade (Figure 7-31). The barricade is used for 
concealment for the kneeling unsupported and prone unsupported positions, and is used for support 
for the barricade supported firing position. Barricade panels can be locally produced using Vi- to 
3 /4-inch plywood and 2- by 4-inch lumber. The dimensions are illustrated in Figure 7-3 1 . The panel 
must have a base for proper support; however, it can be constructed at the unit's discretion. 

7-230. Each firer receives 30 rounds of 5.56-millimeter ball ammunition (3 magazines containing 10 
rounds) and 1 randomly placed dummy round in each magazine. The Soldier assumes a firing position and 
engages each target until it falls and stays down. Once a Soldier has completed a table, he transitions to the 
next position without prompting, and once he has emptied a magazine, he should change magazines 
without prompting. Each Soldier must attain a minimum of 16 hits to be considered trained. 

NOTES: 1 . Targets will bob between hits. 

2. Ten to twenty seconds should elapse between firing tables to allow Soldiers to 
transition to the next firing position or to prompt Soldiers to watch the area for 
additional targets. 

3. A Soldier should not stop firing unless he has completed the firing table and is 
transitioning to the next position (making a brief halt in fire necessary), has 
completed all firing tables, or is out of ammunition. 

4. The dummy round placed in each magazine (1 round for each magazine) 
simulates a malfunction. To properly simulate a malfunction, the dummy round 
must be randomly placed; it cannot be the first or last round in the magazine. 
Soldiers should address this malfunction (by performing SPORTS) without 
prompting. 



7-58 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 




*Figure 7-31. Combat field fire barricade. 



NOTE: The positions demonstrated in the following graphics are for a right-handed firer. For a 
left-handed firer, turn the barricade to place the L-shaped cutout on the opposite side so that the 
firer can engage targets left-handed. 

*Kneeling Unsupported 

7-231. Soldiers begin combat field fire in a kneeling unsupported position (Figure 7-32) next to a 
barricade. On a signal, four targets expose at the same time. 

NOTE: Table 7-23 depicts the distance from the firer to the target, the number of hits required, 
and the time that a target will be exposed. 

7-232. Soldiers fire at each target until it falls and stays down. After 60 seconds have elapsed, the last 
target will fall and stay down. Without prompting, Soldiers transition to the barricade supported position. 

^Barricade Supported 

7-233. To assume a barricade supported position (Figure 7-33), Soldiers stand behind the lower portion of 
the barricade. When in this position, Soldiers are exposed to two sets of targets: 

• In the first set, two targets expose at the same time. After 40 seconds have elapsed, the last target 
will fall and stay down. 

• In the second set, three targets will expose at the same time. After 40 seconds have elapsed, the 
last target will fall and stay down. 

NOTE: Tables 7-24 and 7-25 depicts the distance from the firer to the target, the number of hits 
required, and the time that a target will be exposed. 

7-234. Soldiers engage each target until it falls and stays down. Without prompting, Soldiers transition to 
the prone unsupported position. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



7-59 



Chapter 7 




*Figure 7-32. Combat field fire — kneeling unsupported position. 
Table 7-23. Targets fired from the kneeling unsupported position. 



RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


50 (Left) 


2 


31 


50 (Right) 


2 


31 


100 


1 


45 


150 


2 


60 




*Figure 7-33. Combat field fire — barricade supported position. 



7-60 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



Table 7-24. Targets fired from the barricade supported position-Set 1. 



RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


50 (Left or Right) 


3 


26 


100 


2 


40 



Table 7-25. Targets fired from the barricade supported position-Set 2. 



RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


100 


1 


19 


150 


2 


21 


200 


1 


40 



*Prone Unsupported 

7-235. To assume a prone unsupported position (Figure 7-34), the Soldier positions himself so that he 
fires around the edge of the barricade, using it for cover. When in this position, Soldiers engage two sets of 
targets: 

• In the first set, three targets expose at the same time. After 50 seconds have elapsed, the last 
target will fall and stay down. 

• In the second set, three targets will expose at the same time. After 50 seconds have elapsed, the 
last target will fall and stay down. 

NOTE: Tables 7-26 and 7-27 depicts the distance from the firer to the target, the number of hits 
required, and the time that a target will be exposed. 

7-236. Soldiers fire at each target until it falls and stays down. Upon completion of the firing table, 
Soldiers should stay in position, clear their weapons, and follow the orders given by the tower operator. 




*Figure 7-34. Combat field fire — prone unsupported position. 
Table 7-26. Targets fired from the prone unsupported position-Set 1. 



RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


100 


2 


23 


200 


2 


36 


250 


1 


50 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



7-61 



Chapter 7 



Table 7-27. Targets fired from the prone unsupported position-Set 2. 



RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


150 


2 


21 


250 


2 


37 


300 


1 


50 



*RECORD OF PERFORMANCE 

7-237. Accurate performance data are critical. The firer's score is manually recorded using DA Form 
7682-R (Combat Field Fire Scorecard) or automatically documented using a computer printout provided on 
the automated range. Based on the data recorded, an AAR can be performed by range and firing position to 
discuss firing performance. 

NOTE: See Appendix B for a sample of a completed DA Form 7682-R and the end of this 
publication for a blank, reproducible copy. 

^Ratings 

7-238. Ratings for combat field fire are shown in Table 7-28. 

Table 7-28. Ratings for combat field fire. 



RATINGS 


NUMBER OF HITS 


Trained 


24 to 26 


Partially trained 


16 to 23 


Untrained 


15 and below 



SECTION VIM. SQUAD DESIGNATED MARKSMAN TRAINING 



Advances in technology have led to the development of weapon systems that are increasingly more accurate and able 
to engage targets at much longer ranges. Conversely, today's rifleman is trained to engage targets only out to 300 
meters. This 300-meter limit is well short of the weapon/ammunition combination's capability. Snipers engage targets 
at 600 meters and beyond. The SDM engages targets with direct small arms fire in the gap between the engagement 
range of the average combat Soldier and the sniper. Possessing the ability to estimate range, detect targets, and place 
effective, well-aimed fire on intermediate range targets, the SDM plays a vital role on the modern battlefield. 

MISSION OF THE SQUAD DESIGNATED MARKSMAN 

7-239. The SDM program provides the squad with a designated marksman that has been trained to engage 
targets from 300 to 500 meters. He will operate and maneuver as a rifleman, but will have the added 
responsibility of engaging targets out to 500 meters with effective, well-aimed fires. The SDM is a vital 
member of his individual squad, not a squad sniper. The SDM has neither the equipment nor training to 
engage targets at extended ranges with precision fires while operating individually or in a small team. He 
can also be used to help direct the fires of other squad members into enemy positions. Due to the increased 
skill level required for his position, the SDM must maintain a high level of proficiency through continued 
training of the required skills. The SDM must possess a thorough understanding and mastery of — 

• The fundamentals of rifle marksmanship. 

• Ballistics. 

• Elevation and windage. 

• Hold-off (adjusted points of aim) . 

• Sight manipulation. 

• Range estimation. 



7-62 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



SELECTION 

7-240. The platoon sergeant and squad leaders must take special consideration in selecting the SDM. The 
SDM must have — 

• A solid marksmanship performance. 

• A clear understanding of the fundamentals. 

• The ability to apply these fundamentals consistently during dry-fire and live-fire training. 

SQUAD DESIGNATED MARKSMAN SKILLS PROGRESSION 

7-241. The skills progression program assesses the Soldier's ability to apply the fundamentals of 
marksmanship and trains and assesses the Soldier's proficiency in several key areas. Firing events will 
serve to both reinforce and assess these areas. 

Conduct 

7-242. While conducting the skills progression program, instructors -trainers will adhere to the following 
guidelines: 

• The skills progression program for the SDM is based on the M16-/M4-series weapon system and 
a 98-rounds-per-man ammunition requirement. 

• Soldiers will use their assigned weapon during the training. 

• The firing events will be conducted with the iron sights or BUISs only. 

• The firing events will be conducted on a KD range that enables firing out to 600 meters at a 
minimum. 

Qualification 

7-243. SDM qualification requires the completion of five phases: 

(1) Position evaluation. 

(2) Dry-fire training. 

(3) Range estimation and sight manipulation. 

(4) Hold-off. 

(5) Field fire. 

7-244. Each phase stresses marksmanship fundamentals and specific skill areas required to perform as an 
SDM. To continue training, Soldiers must receive a GO in each phase. Soldiers who fail in any area should 
be removed from training. 

NOTE: If an optic is issued for use, the phases dealing with hold-off and field record fire will be 
removed and relevant optics training and testing will be substituted. 

PHASE I — Position Evaluation 

7-245. Phase I of the training consists of demonstrating the ability to consistently assume proper firing 
positions. The foxhole supported and prone unsupported firing positions will provide the Soldier with the 
smallest target exposure to the enemy and will be used during this training cycle. The prone supported 
position can be substituted for the foxhole supported position dependent on range configurations. Prior to 
this phase of training, trainers ensure that the — 

• Weapon is cleared and that no ammunition is loaded prior to training. 

• Weapon is zeroed prior to training. 

• Soldier is able to assume a steady firing position. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 7-63 



Chapter 7 



Foxhole Supported 

7-246. The Soldier must be able to successfully assume a proper supported position while firing from a 
foxhole. The trainer must ensure that the Soldier has a good steady position. After the Soldier has assumed 
a good supported position in the foxhole — 

(1) The trainer uses DA Form 7650-R (Squad Designated Marksman — Position Evaluation) to 
evaluate his position and take notes on all of the following characteristics: 

NOTE: See the end of this publication for a blank, reproducible copy of DA Form 7650-R. 

Eye relief. 
Trigger finger. 
Elbows. 

Nonfiring hand. 
Legs. 

NOTE: The main areas that will differ between the foxhole supported and the prone supported 
positions are in the placement of the elbows, legs, and nonfiring hand. These body positions will 
be similar to those of the prone unsupported position. 

(2) After all characteristics have been noted, the trainer has the Soldier lay his weapon down, relax, 
and then assume another supported position in the foxhole. 

(3) The trainer evaluates this position by comparing his notes from the original supported position. The 
Soldier should maintain the same characteristics in the second evaluation as he did in the first. 

(4) Once the trainer is satisfied that the Soldier has demonstrated the proper position and is able to 
show it in two consecutive attempts, the Soldier moves to the unsupported prone position. 

Eye Relief 

7-247. To evaluate the Soldier's eye relief, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Demonstrates a consistent eye relief by checking the placement of the Soldier's cheek on the 
weapon's buttstock. 

• *Places his eye the same distance from the rear sight each time he is evaluated. 

Trigger Finger 

7-248. To evaluate the placement of the Soldier's trigger finger, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Uses his own style; not all Soldiers place their finger on the trigger in the same place. 

• Places his finger on the trigger the same way each time he is evaluated. 

Elbows 

7-249. To evaluate the placement of the Soldier's elbows, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Places his elbows firmly a comfortable distance apart on the outside edge of the foxhole. 

• Uses a sandbag, and not his arms, to support the weapon's weight. 

• Assumes a stable position each time he is evaluated by slightly nudging him. 

Nonfiring Hand 

7-250. To evaluate the placement of the Soldier's nonfiring hand, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Places the nonfiring hand in a position that is comfortable and provides the best weapon stability 
and support. Show the Soldier different ways this can be done. 

• Is supporting the weapon properly by nudging him after the weapon has been stabilized. 



7-64 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



Legs 

7-251. To evaluate the placement of the Soldier's legs, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Places the legs inside the foxhole while firing. 

• Plants the legs firmly for a stable position while firing. Slightly nudge the Soldier to make sure 
that his legs are firmly planted in the foxhole. 

Prone Unsupported 

7-252. The Soldier must be able to successfully assume a proper unsupported firing position. The trainer 
must ensure that the Soldier has a good steady position. After the Soldier has assumed a good unsupported 
firing position — 

(1) Taking special care to observe the positioning of the elbows, the nonfiring hand, and the legs, the 
trainer uses DA Form 7650-R (Squad Designated Marksman — Position Evaluation) to evaluate the 
same characteristics as with the supported firing position with the exception of the — 

■ Elbows. 

■ Nonfiring hand. 

■ Legs. 

NOTE: See the end of this publication for a blank, reproducible copy of DA Form 7650-R. 

(2) Once the trainer has noted the Soldier's position, he has the Soldier lay his weapon down, stand 
up, relax, and then get back down into another unsupported prone position. 

(3) The trainer evaluates this position by comparing his notes from the original position. The Soldier 
should maintain the same characteristics in the second evaluation as he did in the first 
evaluation. 

(4) The trainer lets the Soldier hold this firing position for approximately 15 seconds to check for 
shaking. If the Soldier starts to shake, have him relax and reposition himself. 

(5) Once the trainer is satisfied that the Soldier has demonstrated the proper position and is able to 
accomplish it in two consecutive attempts, the Soldier moves on to the next phase of training. 

Elbows 

7-253. To evaluate the placement of the Soldier's elbows, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Places the elbows a comfortable distance apart on the ground. 

• Uses the bone, not the muscles, to support the weapon's weight. This will prevent any 
unnecessary muscle fatigue and will allow for a steadier firing position. 

• Assumes a stable position. Slightly nudge the Soldier to ensure that his position is stable. 

Nonfiring Hand 

7-254. To evaluate the placement of the Soldier's nonfiring hand, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Places his nonfiring hand in a comfortable position on the handguards. 

• Does not support his nonfiring hand on the ground, sandbag or anything that would create a 
supported position. 

Legs 

7-255. To evaluate the placement of the Soldier's legs, ensure that the Soldier — 

• Positions his legs in such a way that he has a stable position; not all Soldiers position their legs 
the same way while shooting from the prone position. 

• Spreads his legs a comfortable distance apart, with the heels on the ground or as close as 
possible without causing strain. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 7-65 



Chapter 7 

Zero Confirmation 

*7-256. After completing Phases I and II, the Soldier conducts a firing event (Table 7-29) to zero or 
confirm the zero on his weapon and reinforce the fundamentals of marksmanship. This firing event will be 
conducted on a 25-meter range. If the Soldier cannot zero within 18 rounds, the trainer recommends 
retraining, retesting, or possible removal from the course. After the weapon is zeroed, any additional rounds 
will be fired and the coach will observe the Soldier for deficiencies in his marksmanship fundamentals. 



Table 7-29. Zero/zero confirmation firing event. 


FIRING EVENT 


ROUNDS 


TARGET RANGE (m) 


Zero/Zero Confirmation 


18 


25 



PHASE II— Dry-Fire Training 

7-257. SDMs must have a solid grasp on the fundamentals to successfully engage targets at longer ranges. 
During this phase of training, the Soldier must demonstrate that he can apply the fundamentals of 
marksmanship correctly. If the Soldier does not receive a GO in this phase of training, he will be dropped 
from the course. The components of this phase of training are — 

• Follow-through. 

• Borelight exercise. 

• Target box exercise. 

• Dime/washer drill. 

• Zero confirmation. 

7-258. Prior to this phase of training trainers ensure that the — 

• Weapon is cleared and no ammunition is loaded prior to training. 

• Weapon is zeroed prior to training. 

• Soldier is able to consistently apply the fundamentals of marksmanship. 

Follow-Through 

7-259. Follow-through involves applying all of the marksmanship fundamentals while and after the 
weapon fires. A good follow-through ensures that the weapon is allowed to fire and recoil naturally. The 
Soldier/weapon combination reacts as a single unit to such actions. It consists of the following: 

• Keeping the cheek in firm contact with the stock (stock weld). 

• Keeping the finger on the trigger all the way to the rear. 

• Continuing to look through the rear aperture. 

• Keeping muscles relaxed. 

• Avoiding reaction to recoil or noise. 

• Releasing the trigger only after the recoil has stopped. 

Borelight Exercise 

7-260. The borelight dry- fire exercise provides evaluation of the Soldier throughout the integrated act of 
firing. 

NOTE: If a borelight is not available, the target box exercise will be used. 

7-26 1 . To perform a borelight exercise — 

(1) The trainer attaches a 25-meter zero target to a flat surface. 

(2) The trainer positions the Soldier 1 meters away, facing the target. 

(3) *The Soldier assumes a good prone supported firing position with the borelight inserted in the 
weapon's barrel and with the borelight placed in the dry-fire mode. 



7-66 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



(4) The trainer uses DA Form 7650-R (Squad Designated Marksman — Position Evaluation) to 
evaluate the Soldier's position: 

NOTE: See the end of this publication for a blank, reproducible copy of DA Form 7650-R. 

(5) The Soldier aims at the silhouette's center of mass on the 25-meter zero target and squeezes the trigger. 

(6) The borelight is activated as the trigger is fired. The laser is seen on the 25 -meter zero target. 

(7) The trainer marks the 25 -meter zero target exactly where the borelight laser hit the target. 

(8) The Soldier gets out of position and then back into a prone supported firing position. 

7-262. This process will be done until a three-round shot group has been achieved. The Soldier will do the 
same from the prone unsupported firing position. To receive a GO, the Soldier must place a three-round 
shot group in a 3 -centimeter circle from both prone positions. 

Target Box Exercise 

7-263. The target box exercise checks the consistency of aiming and placement of three-round shot 
groups in a dry- fire environment. To conduct the exercise — 

(1) The target man places the silhouette on a plain sheet of paper 25 or 15 meters away from the 
firer and moves the correct silhouette target as directed by the Soldier. 

(2) *When the Soldier establishes proper aiming, he tells the target man to mark the target. 

(3) The target man marks through the silhouette with a pen or pencil at the target's center of mass. 

(4) The target man moves the silhouette to another spot on the paper and tells the firer to repeat the 
process twice more to obtain a shot group. 

NOTE: A simulated shot group covered within a 1/2-centimeter circle indicates consistent aiming. 

Dime/Washer Drill 

7-264. The dime/washer drill is an effective way of measuring the Soldier's trigger squeeze. To conduct 
the exercise — 

(1) The Soldier takes aim and squeezes the trigger. 

(2) If the dime or washer remains in place, he has successfully squeezed the trigger. 

*7-265. The Soldier must successfully obtain five out of five consecutive shots without allowing the dime 
or washer to drop. The trainer evaluates the Soldier's performance and gives the Soldier a GO or NO GO. 
If the Soldier receives a NO GO, the trainer recommends retraining, retesting, or possible removal from the 
course. 

Zero Confirmation 

7-266. Zero confirmation is conducted as shown in Table 7-6. 

PHASE III — Range Estimation and Sight Manipulation 100 to 500 Meters 

7-267. SDMs must use range estimation methods to determine the distance between their position and the 
target. Trainers ensure that the — 

• Weapon is cleared and no ammunition is loaded prior to training. 

• Weapon is zeroed prior to training. 

• Soldier knows how to adjust for wind and gravity. 

• Soldier can manipulate the rear sight for different ranges. 

7-268. The trainer sets up a range estimation course using E-type silhouettes at ranges from 100 meters to 
700 meters. Soldiers practice on this course until they find the method that works best for them. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 7-67 



Chapter 7 



7-269. Once the Soldiers have had time to practice, trainers test their ability to estimate range. The Soldier 
is given six targets. He must estimate the range within 50 meters of the actual range to receive a GO. The 
Soldier must estimate range correctly six out of six targets to move on to the next portion of this phase. 

Methods of Range Determination 

7-270. SDMs can use five different methods of range determination: 
1 00-meter unit-of-measure method. 
Range card method. 
Front sightpost method. 
Appearance of objects method. 
Combination method. 

100-Meter Unit-of-Measure Method 

7-27 1 . To use this method, the SDM must be able to visualize a distance of 1 00 meters on the ground. 

• For ranges up to 500 meters, the SDM determines the number of 100-meter increments between 
the two objects he wishes to measure. 

• Beyond 500 meters, he must select a point halfway to the object, determine the number of 
1 00-meter increments to the halfway point, and then double the number. 

NOTES: 1. See Chapter 6 for more information about this method of range determination. 

2. For example, terrain with much dead space limits the accuracy of the 100-meter 
method. 

Range Card Method 

7-272. SDMs use a range card to quickly determine ranges throughout the target area. Once a target is 
detected, the SDM determines its location on the card and then reads the proper range to the target. 

Front Sightpost Method 

7-273. Using the front sightpost as a scale is another method of estimating range. This method can be 
used for a quick on-the-spot estimation and engagement. 

• *If a man-sized target is Vi of the width of the front sightpost, he is approximately 300 meters 
away. 

• *If a man-sized target is the width of the front sightpost, he is approximately 175 meters away. 

NOTE: See Chapter 6 for more information about this method of range determination. 

Appearance of Objects Method 

1-21 A. This method of range determination is based on the size and visible characteristics of an object. To use 
this method with any degree of accuracy, the SDM must be familiar with the appearance and visible detail of an 
object at various ranges. Some common guidelines can be used to determine the range of a human target: 

• At 200 meters, a human target is clear and details can be seen. 

• At 300 meters, the target is still clear, but no details can be seen. 

• At 400 meters, the target's outline is clear; however, the target itself is blurry. 

• At 500 meters, the body tapers and the head disappears. 

• At 600 meters, the body resembles a wedge shape. 

NOTE: See Chapter 6 for more information about this method of range determination. 



7-68 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



Combination Method 

7-275. In a combat environment, perfect conditions rarely exist. Therefore, only one method of range 
estimation may not be enough for the SDM's specific mission. By using a combination of two or more methods 
to determine an unknown range, an experienced SDM should arrive at an estimated range close to the true range. 

Factors Affecting Range Estimation 

7-276. Three factors affect range estimation: 

• Nature of the target 

• Nature of the terrain. 

• Light conditions. 

Nature of the Target 

7-277. The nature of the target affects its perceived range: 

• An object with a regular outline, such as a house, appears closer than one with an irregular 
outline, such as a clump of trees. 

• A target that contrasts with its background appears to be closer than it actually is. 

• A partly exposed target appears more distant than it actually is. 

Nature of the Terrain 

7-278. The contour of the terrain affects the observer's ability to estimate range: 

• As the observer's eye follows the contour of the terrain, he tends to overestimate distant targets. 

• Observing over smooth terrain, such as sand, water, or snow, causes the observer to 
underestimate distant targets. 

• Looking downhill, the target appears farther away. 

• Looking uphill, the target appears closer. 

Light Conditions 

7-279. Light conditions affect range estimation: 

• The more clearly a target can be seen, the closer it appears. 

• When the sun is behind the observer, the target appears to be closer. 

• When the sun is behind the target, the target is more difficult to see and appears to be farther away. 

Elevation Knob Training 

* 7-2 80. Elevation knob training involves nothing more than being able to adjust the rear elevation knob 
for the various ranges that the SDM must engage. With this knowledge, he can better determine his range 
settings for the different distances between the 100-meter adjustments. 

7-28 1 . The rear elevation knob adjusts the point of aim — 

• From 300 to 800 meters on the Ml 6A2. 

• From 300 to 600 meters on the Ml 6A4 and M4. 



Conduct 



*7-282. During elevation knob training, the Soldier determines the number of adjustments (clicks) between 
the different range settings on his rear elevation adjustment knob (Tables 7-30 and 7-31). Once the Soldier 
understands how to set the proper point of aim for his target using his rear elevation knob, the 
instructor/trainer has him conduct another range estimation course. This time, the instructor/trainer has him 
estimate the range and set the rear elevation for the range that he has estimated. The Soldier must estimate 
range and set his rear elevation knob properly six out of six times to receive a GO. If the Soldier receives a 
NO GO, the trainer recommends retraining, retesting, or possible removal from the course. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 7-69 



Chapter 7 



*7-283. Once the Soldier has an understanding of range estimation and sight manipulation, he can begin 
the live-fire training exercise (Table 7-32). The Soldier will be given 20 rounds in which to engage 20 
targets at ranges from 100 to 500 meters using mechanical sight adjustments. 

Table 7-30. Elevation knob, M16A2/3 and front sightpost, M16A4. 



DISTANCE (m) 


DISTANCE ONE CLICK WILL ADJUST THE POINT OF IMPACT 


FRONT SIGHTPOST 


WINDAGE KNOB 


ELEVATION WHEEL 


25 


.83 cm (3/8 in) 


.33 cm (1/8 in) 


.5 cm (1/4 in) 


50 


1.50 cm (5/8 in) 


.5 cm (1/4 in) 


1.5 cm (1/2 in) 


75 


2.50 cm (1 in) 


1.0 cm (3/8 in) 


2.0 cm (3/4 in) 


100 


3.50 cm (1 3/8 in) 


1.5 cm (1/2 in) 


2.75 cm (1 in) 


150 


5.00 cm (2 in) 


2.0 cm (3/4 in) 


4.0 cm (1 1/2 in) 


175 


6.00 cm (2 3/8 in) 


2.25 cm (7/8 in) 


5.0 cm (2.0 in) 


200 


6.50 cm (2 5/8 in) 


2.5 cm (1 in) 


5.5 cm (2 1/4 in) 


250 


8.50 cm (3 3/8 in) 


3.5 cm (1 1/4 in) 


7.0 cm (2 3/4 in) 


300 


10.0 cm (4 in) 


4.0 cm (1 1/2 in) 


8.5 cm (3 1/4 in) 


400 


13.5 cm (5 3/8 in) 


5.5 cm (2 1/4 in) 


11.0 cm (4 1/2 in) 


500 


17.0 cm 


6.5 cm (2 1/2 in) 


14.0 cm (5 1/2 in) 


600 


20.5 cm 


8.0 cm (3 1/8 in) 


16. 75 cm (6 1/2 in) 


700 


24.0 cm 


9.0 cm (3 5/8 in) 


19.5 cm (7 1/2 in) 


800 


27.5 cm 


10.5 cm (4 1/8 in) 


22.5 cm (8 3/4 in) 


NOTE: All values were rounded off. 


Table 7-31. Elevation knob, M4/M4A1 and windage, M16A4. 


DISTANCE (m) 


DISTANCE ONE CLICK WILL ADJUST THE POINT OF IMPACT 


FRONT SIGHTPOST 


WINDAGE KNOB 


ELEVATION WHEEL 


25 


1.2 cm (1/2 in) 


.5 cm (1/4 in) 


.5 cm (1/4 in) 


50 


2.4 cm (1 in) 


1.5 cm (1/2 in) 


1.5 cm (1/2 in) 


75 


3.6 cm (1 1/2 in) 


2.0 cm (3/4 in) 


2.0 cm (3/4 in) 


100 


4.8 cm (1 7/8 in) 


2.75 cm (1 in) 


2.75 cm (1 in) 


150 


7.2 cm (2 7/8 in) 


4.0 cm (1 1/2 in) 


4.0 cm (1 1/2 in) 


175 


8.4 cm (3 3/8 in) 


5.0 cm (2.0 in) 


5.0 cm (2.0 in) 


200 


9.6 cm (3 3/4 in) 


5.5 cm (2 1/4 in) 


5.5 cm (2 1/4 in) 


250 


12.0 cm (4 3/4 in) 


7.0 cm (2 3/4 in) 


7.0 cm (2 3/4 in) 


300 


14.4 cm (5 3/4 in) 


8.5 cm (3 1/4 in) 


8.5 cm (3 1/4 in) 


400 


19.2 cm (7 1/2 in) 


11.0 cm (4 1/2 in) 


11.0 cm (4 1/2 in) 


500 


24.0 cm (9 1/2 in) 


14.0 cm (5 1/2 in) 


14.0 cm (5 1/2 in) 


600 


28.8 cm (11 1/4 in) 


16. 75 cm (6 1/2 in) 


16.75 cm (6 1/2 in) 


NOTE: All values were rounded off. 


Table 7-32. Known distance (mech. adj.) firing event. 


FIRING EVENT 


ROUNDS 


TARGET RANGE (m) 


Known Distance (Mech. Adj.) 


20 


100 to 500 



PHASE IV— Hold-Off 100 to 500 Meters 

*7-284. To engage targets at ranges other than that of the current zero or when firing at targets in varying 
wind conditions, Soldiers may use hold-offs. 

NOTE: The windage knob should not be used to make adjustments for wind. 



7-70 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



7-285. Prior to this phase of training, trainers ensure that the — 

• Weapon is cleared and that no ammunition is loaded prior to training. 

• Weapon is zeroed prior to training. 

• Soldier knows how to adjust for wind and gravity. 

• Soldier can manipulate the rear sight for different ranges. 



Elevation 



7-286. When a Soldier aims directly at a target at ranges greater than the set range, his bullet will hit 
below the point of aim. At lesser ranges, his bullet will hit higher than the point of aim. If the SDM 
understands this and knows about trajectory and bullet drop, he will be able to hit the target at ranges other 
than that for which the weapon was adjusted. 

7-287. For example, the SDM adjusts the weapon for a target located 500 meters downrange, and another 
target appears at a range of 600 meters. The hold-off would be 25 inches; that is, the SDM should hold off 
25 inches above the center of visible mass in order to hit the center of mass of that particular target. If 
another target were to appear at 400 meters, the SDM would aim 14 inches below the center of visible mass 
in order to hit the center of mass. 

* 7-288. The chart in Figure 7-35 shows the projectile's trajectory when fired from the M4 carbine and the 
M16A2 rifle. This demonstrates the drop of the round at various ranges. 

NOTE: This diagram will assist the trainer in teaching vertical hold-off during this phase. 

* 7-2 89. As the chart in Figure 7-35 shows, the hold-off at 400 meters is about half the height of the 
standard E-type silhouette; to hold-off at 400 meters, the firer aims half the height of the target over the 
target to hit it. The drop at 500 meters is considerably larger, so holding off will not be practical. The firer 
will have to adjust his rear elevation knob to get the proper point of aim for that distance. 



M4 Carbine and M16A2 Rifle Bullet Trajectory Comparision 



20 



-20 

-40 

-60 

-80 

-100 

-120 





^**^ i 


■ *..' 


!»*■-■ 


■-.M 




**» . 




















































% ( 

% 


























% 
\ 


























% 


V 
\ 
























1 \ 
* 
























V 



- - - M4 
M16A2 



50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 

Meters 



*Figure 7-35. Bullet trajectory comparison. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



7-71 



Chapter 7 



Windage 



* 7-290. When firing during windy conditions, the SDM must use hold-off to adjust for windage (Figure 
7-36). 

• When holding off, the SDM aims into the wind. If the wind is moving from the right to left, his 
point of aim is to the right. If the wind is moving from left to right, his point of aim is to the left. 

• If the SDM misses the target and the point of impact of the round is observed, he notes the 
lateral distance of his error and refires, holding off that distance in the opposite direction. 

*7-291. Table 7-33 shows calculated adjusted points of aim based on wind speed. 

*7-292. Table 7-34 shows the drift for a 10-mph wind using 5.56-millimeter M855 ball ammunition fired 
in a M16A2 rifle with a 300-meter battlesight zero. 




10MPHWIND 



48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 

hhhhl.lihLl.lih m.i.Ni.i.hiVhM.I.I 



INCHES 

Blowing from 3 o'clock on an M193 bullet. 



475 

■450 

•425 
—400 

375 
-350 
-325 

-275 ^ 

-250 J 

E 

R 
S 




*Figure 7-36. Windage effects of a 10-mph crosswind. 
*Table 7-33. Calculated adjusted point of aim based on wind speed (full value). 



WIND 
SPEED 


RANGE (m) 


25 


50 


75 


100 


150 


175 


200 


250 


300 


5 mph 


1/4 in 


3/8 in 


1/2 in 


1 in 


2 in 


2.5 in 


3.5 in 


5 in 


7.5 in 


10mph 


1/2 in 


3/4 in 


1 in. 


2 in 


4 in 


5 in 


7 in 


10 in 


15 in 


15 mph 


3/4 in 


1 1/8 in 


1.5 in 


3 in 


6 in 


7.5 in 


10.5 in 


15 in 


22.5 in 



7-72 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 



Table 7-34. Drift for 10-mph wind using M855 ammunition when 
fired from M16A2 rifle with 300-meter battlesight zero. 



RANGE (m) 


VELOCITY (fps) 


TRAJECTORY (in) 


DROP (in) 


DRIFT (in) 





3,100 


-2.5 


0.0 


0.0 


100 


2,751 


4.4 


-2.3 


1.1 


200 


2,420 


5.8 


-10.2 


4.9 


300 


2,115 


0.0 


-25.3 


11.8 


400 


1,833 


-15.0 


-49.5 


22.4 


500 


1,569 


-42.9 


-86.7 


38.0 


600 


1,323 


-88.2 


141.3 


59.5 


700 


1,106 


-156.1 


-220.9 


88.4 


800 


1,010 


-267.7 


-339.2 


124.9 



7-293. Firers use the Ml 5 sighting device to demonstrate that they understand holding off. To do so, the 
firer aligns the sights on the silhouette on the proper adjusted point of aim. 

NOTE: See Appendix A for information about the Ml 5 sighting device. 

*7-294. Once the firer has an understanding of elevation and windage hold-off, he can begin the live-fire 
training exercise (Table 7-35). The firer will be given 20 rounds in which to engage 20 targets at ranges 
from 100 to 500 meters using elevation and windage hold-off. 

Table 7-35. Firing event, known distance (hold off). 



FIRING EVENT 


ROUNDS 


TARGET RANGE (m) 


Known Distance (Hold Off) 


20 


100 to 500 



PHASE V— Field Fire 100 to 500 Meters 

* 7-295. The field fire events (Table 7-36) will test the individual's marksmanship, range estimation, and 
target detection skills. Field fire will consist of both a Record Fire I and a Record Fire II course. The 
Record Fire I course requires the individual to use mechanical elevation and windage adjustments. The 
Record Fire II course requires the individual to use elevation and windage hold-off (adjusted points of aim). 

Conduct 

7-296. To complete this course, Soldiers fire two firing events: Record Fire I and Record Fire II. 

*7-297. During each event, each Soldier will engage a total of 20 targets with 20 rounds. Soldiers must 
attain a total of 14 hits out of 20 targets on each record fire to pass. Table 7-36 depicts these two events and 
provides related information, such as number of rounds that must be fired, position that must be used, and 
the distance away from the firer that the target must be placed. 

Table 7-36. Firing event, Record Fire I and II. 



FIRING EVENT 


POSITION 


ROUNDS 


NUMBER OF 
TARGETS 


TARGET RANGE (m) 


Record Fire 1 


Foxhole supported or prone 
supported position and the prone 
unsupported firing position 


20 


20 


100 to 500 


Record Fire II 


Foxhole supported or prone 
supported position and the prone 
unsupported firing position 


20 


20 


100 to 500 



NOTE: If the SDM is issued an optic, the Record Fire II course will substitute use of that optic 
instead of using adjusted points of aim. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



7-73 



Chapter 7 



7-298. Prior to training, ensure that — 

• The weapon is zeroed prior to training. 

• Each Soldier assumes a steady firing position. 

• Each Soldier consistently applies the fundamentals of marksmanship. 

• Each Soldier knows how to adjust for wind and gravity. 

• Each Soldier manipulates the rear sight for different ranges. 

NOTE: See Appendix B for a sample completed form and the end of this publication for a 
blank, reproducible copy. 

Certification 

7-299. Once the firer has successfully completed the SDM program, he is designated as an SDM and will 
be able to perform all duties and responsibilities set forth by these guidelines. 

NOTE: SDM skills are highly perishable, and sustainment training should be conducted to 
ensure retention of the skills. At a minimum, sustainment training should be conducted 
semiannually. 



7-74 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Advanced Optics, Lasers, and Iron Sights 



(6) Adjust the AN/PEQ-2A/B (top-mounted) target illuminator as follows: 

■ For windage and elevation, one click equals 1 centimeter or one square at 25 meters. 

■ For elevation, one clockwise click moves the bullet strike down. 

■ For windage, one clockwise click moves the bullet strike right. 

(7) Retighten the rail grabber and the AN/PEQ-2A/B. 

(8) Once the aiming beam is zeroed, rotate the selector knob to the DUAL LO, DUAL LO/HI, or 
DUAL HI/HI mode to observe both aiming and illumination beams. 

(9) Rotate the illumination beam adjusters to align the illumination beam with the aiming beam. 

NOTES: 1. Failure to fully tighten the mounting brackets and AN/PEQ-2A/B thumbscrew 
may cause zero retention problems. Confirm that equipment is tight prior to 
zeroing. 

2. To retain zero, remove the TPIAL and rail grabber as a whole assembly and 
place back onto the same notch as removed. 

Target Detection 

8-87. Soldiers should receive in-depth instruction on the proper use and fit of night vision goggles, to 
include characteristics and capabilities, maintenance, and mounting procedures. Extensive testing has 
proven that the average Soldier does not properly use NVDs. Unit leaders must be proficient in the train- 
the-trainer strategy. At night, Soldiers should conduct a terrain walk to become more familiar and build 
confidence using the night vision goggles. 

Scanning for Targets 

8-88. NVDs have a 40-degree field of view, which causes the average firer to miss easy targets of 
opportunity. Soldiers must be trained to aggressively scan their sectors of fire for targets. 

8-89. The art of target detection at night is only as good as the Soldier practices. Regular blinking during 
scanning relieves some of the eyestrain that Soldiers experience when trying to spot distant targets. Regular 
blinking must be reinforced during training. After Soldiers have mastered the art of scanning, they will find 
that targets are more easily detected by acknowledging the flicker or movement of a target. 

Infrared Discipline 

8-90. Soldiers must be taught that what they can see downrange or on the battlefield through NVGs, the 
enemy can also see. Soldiers must train to activate the laser at the base of the target and engage the target as 
soon as the target is detected. After the target has been engaged, the laser is deactivated. 

8-91. When a Soldier uses proper IR discipline while scanning for targets, he must keep his weapon 
oriented within his sector of fire. When the target is detected, the Soldier orients his weapon around the 
base of the target, activates his laser, and walks the laser to the target's center of mass for engagement. 

Field Fire 

8-92. During dry- fire exercises, Soldiers acquire a sight picture on all exposed silhouette targets before 
conducting the field fire scenario. This allows Soldiers to focus on the targets at range. The procedures for 
field fire include the following: 

• Conduct a dry-fire exercise prior to conducting a live-fire. 

• Conduct Field Fire in the same manner as Field Fire II. 

• Engage targets at 50, 150, and 250 meters. 

• Fire 36 rounds: 

■ 18 rounds from the supported firing position. 

■ 18 rounds from the prone unsupported firing position. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 8-27 



Chapter 8 



Practice Qualification 

8-93. The procedures for practice qualification include the following: 

• Conduct a dry- fire exercise. 

• Use coaches. 

• Fire 40 rounds: 

■ 20 rounds from the prone supported firing position. 

■ *20 rounds from the unsupported firing position. 

• Engage targets from 50 to 250 meters. 

• Meet the standards (17 hits out of 40 target exposures). 

Record Qualification 

8-94. The procedures for record qualification include the following: 

• Conduct a dry- fire exercise. 

• Fire 40 rounds: 

■ 20 rounds from the prone supported firing position. 

■ *20 rounds from the unsupported firing position. 

• Engage targets from 50 to 250 meters. 

• Meet the standards (17 hits out of 40 target exposures). 

AN/PVS-4 NIGHT VISION DEVICE 

8-95. The AN/PVS-4 NVD is a portable, battery-operated electro-optical instrument used for observation 
and aimed fire of weapons at night. It amplifies reflected light, such as moonlight, starlight, and sky glow, 
so that the viewed scene becomes clearly visible to the operator. It can be mounted on the M16A2/A3/A4 
rifle and M4/M4 MWS. Mounting brackets are provided for each type of weapon. 

NOTE: See Table 8-8 for the current training program. 

Table 8-8. AN/PVS-4 night vision device training program. 



AN/PVS-4 NIGHT VISION DEVICE 



Instructional Intent 



Soldiers qualify with the AN/PVS-4 NVD. 



Special Instructions 



Ensure that Soldiers — 

Are proficient with the AN/PVS-4 NVD. 

• Install the spacer and Picatinny rail grabber when mounting on the MWS. 

• Use the proper 10-meter boresighting target during boresighting procedures. 

• Use the proper reticle. 

• Confirm 1 0-meter boresight with a 25-meter zero. 



Observables 



Soldiers zero the AN/PVS-4 to the same standard as with the iron sight. 

Soldiers achieve the same practice and qualification standards as with day record fire. 



8-28 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 201 1 



Appendix B 

Scorecards 

During live-fire events, a Soldier's hit-and-miss performance is recorded to facilitate 
the instructor/trainer's critiques or to indicate where more training is needed. The 
following are examples of completed scorecards. 

EXAMPLES OF COMPLETED SCORECARDS 

B-l. ^Figures B-l through B-9 show examples of completed scorecards. 

REPRODUCIBLE FORMS 

B-2. Blank copies of the following can be found at the end of this publication: 

• DA Form 3595-R (Record Fire Scorecard). 

• DA Form 3601-R (Single Target — Field Fire I Scorecard). 

• DA Form 5239-R (100-, 200-, and 300-Meter Downrange Feedback Scorecard). 

• DA Form 5241 -R (Single and Multiple Targets — Field Fire II Scorecard). 

• DA Form 5789-R (Record Fire Scorecard — Known-Distance Course). 

• DA Form 5790-R (Record Fire Scorecard — Scaled Target Alternate Course). 

• DA Form 7489-R (Record Night Fire Scorecard). 

• DA Form 7649-R (Squad Designated Marksman — Record Fire I and II). 

• DA Form 7650-R (Squad Designated Marksman — Position Evaluation). 

• *DA Form 7682-R (Combat Field Fire Scorecard). 

NOTE: These forms, scorecards, and position evaluation sheets are not available through the 
normal supply channels. You may reproduce them locally on 8 1/2- x 1 1 -inch paper or download 
them from the Army Publishing Directorate at http://www.apd.army.mil/. 



10 February 2011 FM 3-22.9, C1 B-1 



Appendix B 



100-, 200- AND 300-METER OOWNRANGE FEEDBACK SCORECARD 

For use of this form see FM 3-22 9; the proponent agency is TRADOC 



bJGZ/jCi 



UNIT 

Ceo V29^X«F 



DATE (YYYYMMDD) 

3oe>l£c>3t/ 



EVALUATOR'S ID CODE 



<- 



ZERO CONFIRMATION 



ZERO CONFIRMATION RE FIRE 



■2. 



i7 



tjm 



ZERO-SHOT LOCATIONS 



SHOT LOCATIONS 




DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) 



SCORERS INITIALS 

S<5& 



DA FORM 5239-R, SEP 2008 



DA FORM 5239-R. JUN 1989, IS OBSOLETE 



Figure B-1. Example of completed DA Form 5239-R 
(100-, 200-, and 300-Meter Downrange Feedback Scorecard). 







For 


SINGLE TARGET 
FIELD FIRE 1 SCORECARD 

use of this form see FM 3-22.9: the proponent agency is TRADOC 




- 






ID CODE 


UNIT 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 


EVALUATOR'S ID CODE 

C ZZ 9*&* 






TABLE 1 
SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TABLE 2 
SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TABLE 3 
PRONE FIRING POSITION 


TABLE 4 

KNEELING FIRING POSITION 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


TIME 

(see) 


HIT 


MISS 


RO 


RANGE 
(m) 


TIME 

(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


RD 


RANGE 

m 


TIME 


HIT 


MISS 


RD 


RANGE 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 




1 


75 


6 


% 




1 


75 


6 


Y 




1 


75 


6 


X 




1 


75 


6 




X 


2 


175 


8 


% 




2 


175 


8 


X 




2 


175 


8 




X 


2 


175 


8 


X 




3 


300 


10 


X 




3 


300 


10 


X 




3 


300 


10 




X 


3 


75 


6 


X 




A 


175 


8 


X 




4 


175 


8 




X 


4 


175 


8 


t 




4 


175 


8 


X 




5 


75 


6 


X 




5 


75 


6 


X 




5 


75 


6 


X 




5 


75 


6 




X 


6 


300 


10 


X 




6 


300 


10 


X 




6 


300 


10 


X 




6 


175 


8 


V 




7 


300 


10 




X 


7 


300 


10 




X 


7 


300 


10 




X 


7 


75 


6 




X 


8 


75 


75 


X 




8 


75 


6 


X 




8 


75 


6 


X 




8 


75 


6 


X 




9 


175 


175 


Y 




9 


175 


8 


y 




9 


175 


8 


X 




9 


175 


6 


X 




10 


175 


8 


X 




10 


175 


8 


X 
























11 


300 


10 


X 




11 


300 


10 




X 






















12 


175 


8 


% 




12 


175 


8 


% 
























13 


75 


6 




X 


13 


75 


6 


X 
























14 


300 


10 




X 


14 


300 


10 


X 
























15 


175 


8 


X 




15 


175 


8 


X 
























16 


75 


6 


X 




16 


75 


6 


X 
























17 


300 


10 


y 




17 


300 


10 




X 






















18 


75 


6 




X 


18 


75 


8 


X 
























TOTAL -^H 


l*i 


H 


TOTAL 


n 


V 


TOTAL 


& 


3 


TOTAL 


£ 


3 


^^^fl SCORE 


REMARKS 


TABLE ' HIT 


MISS 


NO FIRE 


1 


i<f 


4 




2 


IH 


H 




3 


6 


3 




4 


£ 


3 




DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) 

3ooX 0$t>U> 


SCORER'S INITIALS 

S4A 



DA FORM 3601-R, SEP 2008 



DA FORM 3601 -R.J 



Figure B-2. Example of completed DA Form 3601-R 
(Single Target — Field Fire I Scorecard). 



B-2 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Scorecards 



SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGETS 
FIELD FIRE II SCORECARD 

For use of this form see FM 3-22.9. the proponent agency is TRADOC 


ID CODE 


UNIT 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 


EVALUATOR'S ID CODE 

C 219 0O' 


TABLE 1 
SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TABLE 2 
SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TABLE 3 
PRONE FIRING POSITION 


SCORE 


RD 


RANGE 

m 


TIME 

(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


RD 


RANGE 
Cm) 


TIME 

(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


TABLE 


HIT 


MISS 


1 


75 


5 


It 




1 


175 


7 


* 




1 


75 


« 


X 




2 


/r 


¥ 


2 


175 


7 


K 




2 


75 


10 


X 




2 


175 


8 


X 




3 


i<* 


c 


3 


75 


11 


X 




3 


300 




X 


3 


75 


13 


X 










4 


300 




X 


4 


75 


9 


X 




4 


300 




X 








5 


75 


9 


X- 




5 


175 


X 




5 


75 


11 


X 










6 


175 




K 


6 


300 


9 


X 




6 


175 


* 










7 


75 


10 


* 




7 


75 


9 


X 




7 


75 


12 


X 










8 


300 




X 


8 


175 


X 




8 


300 


X 










9 


175 


11 


X 




9 


175 


11 


X 




9 


175 


13 


X 










10 


300 




X 


10 


300 




X 


10 


I 300 




y 


















11 


75 


9 


X 




11 


75 


11 


X 










12 


175 


X 




12 


175 


X 










13 


175 


11 


X 




13 


175 


8 




* 








14 


300 




* 


14 


75 


6 


X 










15 


75 


5 


X 




15 


75 


11 


X 










16 


175 


11 


X 




16 


175 


X 










17 


300 


X 




17 


75 


12 


X 










18 


75 


9 


X 




18 


300 




X 








4 


19 


175 


X 




19 


75 


11 


X 










20 


75 


10 


X 




20 


175 


X 










21 


300 




X 


21 


175 


13 




X 








22 


175 


7 


X 




22 


300 




X 








TOTAL 


u 


H 


TOTAL 


It 


H 


TOTAL 


l<* 


u 


TOTAL 


3H 


to 


REMARKS 


DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) 

30QX&I m 


SCORER'S INITIALS . 



DA FORM 5241 -R, SEP 2008 



OAFORM5241-R. JUN 19f 



Figure B-3. Example of completed DA Form 5241 -R 
(Single and Multiple Targets — Field Fire II Scorecard). 



RECORD FIRE SCORECARD 

For use of this form see FM 3-22.9; the proponent agency is TRADOC 


ID CODE 


UNIT 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 


EVALUATORS ID CODE 


TABLE 1 
PRONE SUPPORTED OR FOXHOLE SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TABLE 2 
PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSI 


riON 


TABLE 3 ^A 
KNEELING UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


NO 

FIRE 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


NO 
FIRE 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


NO 
FIRE 


RD 


RANGE 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


NO 
FIRE 


1 


50 


3 


X 






11 


100 


e 


* 






1 


200 


6 


X 






1 


150 


8 


X 






2 


200 


6 


X 






12 


200 


r 






2 


250 


8 


K 






2 


50 


4 


% 






3 


100 


4 


* 






13 


150 


10 


X 






3 


150 


6 


K 






3 


100 


5 


X 






4 


150 


5 






X 


14 


300 


X 






4 


300 


10 


Y 






4 


150 


6 


X 






5 


300 


8 




X 




15 


100 


9 


X 






5 


200 


K 




5 


100 


5 


K 






6 


250 


7 


* 






16 


250 




X 




6 


150 


12 


X 






6 


50 


4 




fi 




7 


50 


3 


Y 






17 


200 


6 


X 






7 


200 


K 






7 


100 


5 


X 






8 


200 


6 


X 






18 


150 


5 


y 






8 


250 


9 


X 






8 


150 


6 


* 






9 


150 


5 


* 






19 


50 


6 


x 






9 


150 


X 






9 


50 


4 


K 






10 


250 


7 


< 






20 


100 


X 






10 


150 


6 


X 






10 


100 


5 


A. 






TOTAL 


sr 


/ 


I 


TOTAL 


<=! 


I 





TOTAL 


\o 








TOTAL 


<t 


1 


P 


SCORE 


QUALIFICATION SCORE RATINGS (Check One) 
30-35 -- SHARPSHOOTER 22 AND BELOW -- UNQUALIFIED 


Qualified with IBA? }£ YES NO 


TABLE 


HIT 


MISS 


NO FIRE 


1 


17 


Z 


1 


AIMING DEVICE USED (Check One) 

V" IRON SIGHT AN/PAS-13(DAY) 
BACKUP IRON SIGHT AN/PAS-13 (NIGHT) 
M68, CCO AN/PAQ-4B/C 
ACOG AN/PEQ-2A/B 


2 


(O 


P 





3 


1 


t 


J* 


FIRER'S QUALIFICATION SCORE 3 r 


NIGHT FIRE EXERCISE 


REMARKS 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 


^ Hrr 


MISS 


GO 


NO GO 


JOOtTe&f/ 


y 


2. 


X 




CBRN FIRE EXERCISE 


DATEfWmmfOOJ 


HIT 


MISS 


GO 


NO GO 












DATE INITIALED (Y 


YYYMMDD) 


SCORER'S INITIALS 


DATE 1 


MITIAL 


EC 


v 


YYYMMDD) 
J// 


OFFICERS INITIALS 



DA FORM 3595-R, SEP 2008 



DA FORM 3595-R. JUL 2006, IS OBSOLETE. 



Figure B-4. Example of completed DA Form 3595-R 
(Record Fire Scorecard). 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



B-3 



Appendix B 



RECORD FIRING SCORECARD - KNOWN DISTANCE COURSE 

For use of this form, see FM 3-22,9; the proponent agency is TRAOOC. 



ID CODE (NOT SSN) 



&.&2/z? il <ItlF 



TABLE 1 

PRONE SUPPORTED OR FOXHOLE SUPPORTEO FIRING POSITION 

(TIME: 120 SECONDS) 



RANGE 
(m) 



f 



K= 






_lZ 



(o 



3- 



FIRERS QUALIFICATION SCORE 



JS_ 



SCp 



RANGE 
(rn) 



B 






i i 



/ 



DATE (YYYYMMDD) 



EVALUATOR'S ID 



CODE (NOT SSN) 



TABLE 2 

PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 

(TIME: 60 SECONDS) 



RANGE 
(m) 



ifl 



~n~ 



5 



D 



QUALIFICATION SCORE RATINGS (Check One) 
^J 38^(0 -EXPERT ^^^J, 26-32 ~ MARKSMAN 

Kj 33-37 - SHARPSHOOTER ^] 25 AND BELOW -- UNQUALIFIED 



NIGHT FIRE EXERCISE 



DATE (YYYYMMOD) 



TOW ozzc 



A 



CBRN FIRE EXERCISE 



-£L 



□ 



DATE (YYYYMMDD) 



D 



D 



SCORER'S INITIALS 



4*? 



OFFICER'S INITIALS 



■&& 



THE FIRER WILL BE ISSUED 40 
ROUNDS. THE ROUNDS WILL BE 
PRELOADED IN FOUR 10-ROUND 
MAGAZINES - TWO FOR TABLE 1, 
AND ONE FOR EACH REMAINING 
TABLE. 



TABLE 3 

KNEELING FIRING POSITION 

(TIME: 60 SECONDS) 



RANGE 
(m) 



© 



7z 



!&_ 



L-? 



_H_ 



10 



a 



□ 



/6 




tfl/>At 



M 



A* 



ftm 



DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) 

-got I 



o-zu 



DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) 

-Z.0I fl ' 



*Figure B-5. Example of DA Form 5789-R 
(Record Fire Scorecard — Known Distance Course). 



RECORD FIRING SCORECARD -- SCALED TARGET ALTERNATE COURSE 

For use of this form, see FM 3-22,3; the proponent agency is TRADOC, 


ID CODE (NOT SSN) 


UNIT 


date ryyyywMDDj 


EVALUATOR'S ID CODE (NOT SSN) 


TABLE 1 

PRONE SUPPORTED OR FOXHOLE SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 

(TIME: 120 SECONDS) 


TABLE 2 

PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 

(TIME: 60 SECONDS) 


TABLE 3 

KNEELING FIRING POSITION 

(TIME: 60 SECONDS) 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


HIT 


MISS 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


HIT 


MISS 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


HIT 


MISS 


RD 


RANGE 

(m) 


HIT 


MISS 


1 


300 


&J 


n 


11 


150 


□ 




> 




1 


300 




\ 


fcj 


1 


150 


&Ll 




J 


2 


300 


El 


i 


12 


150 


a 








2 


250 




% 


Q 


2 


150 


S3 




J 


3 


250 


£ 


D 


13 


100 


H 








3 


200 




'% 


D 


3 


100 


s 




J 


4 


250 


n 


a 


14 


100 


i 








4 


200 




71 


n 


4 


100 


w 




5 


5 


200 


s 


a 


15 


100 


B 








5 


150 




? 


n 


5 


100 


m 




3 


6 


200 


a 


a 


16 


100 


| 








6 


150 




$ 


n 


6 


100 


S 




j 


7 


200 


m 


□ 


17 


100 


E 








7 


too 




3 


n 


7 


100 


a 




tf 


8 


200 


m 


n 


18 


1:00 


a 








8 


100 




*. 


a 


8 


100 


B 




\ 


9 


150 


m 


n 


19 


50 


ifl 








9 


100 




p] 


a 


9 


50 


ra 




_: 


10 


150 


a 


D 


20 


50 


a 








10 


50 




s 


a 


10 


50 







J 


TOTAL 


9 


1 


TOTAL A 


£ 


■^ 


TOTAL 


1 


I 


TOTAL 


? 


1 


SCORE 


QUALIFICATION SCORE RATINGS (Check One) 
Q 3M0- EXPERT Q 23-29 -- MARKSMAN 

[SQ 30-35 ■- SHARPSHOOTER ^\ 22 AND BELOW -UNQUALIFIED 


FIRER ISSUED 40 ROUNDS TO ENGAGE 10 
TARGETS. THE ROUNDS WILL BE 
PRELOADED IN ONE 20-ROUND MAGAZINE 
FOR TABLE 1, ONE 10-ROUND MAGAZINE 
FOR TABLE 2, AND ONE 10-ROUND 
MAGAZINE FOR TABLE 3. 


TABLE 


HIT 


MISS 


NO FIRE 


1 


II 


% 


& 


2 


1 


\ 


t 


3 


9 


1 


\ 


FIRER'S QUALIFICATION SCORE _?5" 


NIGHT FIRE EXERCISE 


REMARKS 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 


HIT^^L 


MISS GO 


NO GO 


-Zo bziO 


5~ 


* 1 m 


D 




CBRN FIRE EXERCISE 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 


HIT 


MISS GO 


NO GO 








a 


r-i 


SCORER'S INITIALS / / -% 


OATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) ^— 


OFFICERS INITIALS /L~ ". A 


DATE INITIALED (WVyM/WDDJ 



*Figure B-6. Example of completed DA Form 5790-R 
(Record Fire Scorecard — Scaled Target Alternate Course). 



B-4 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Scorecards 



RECORD NIGHT FIRE SCORECARD 

For use of this form see FM 3-22.9; the proponent agency is TRADOC 


ID CODE 


UNIT 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 


EVALUATORS ID CODE 

CZ2.<t£>Of 


TABLE 1 
FOXHOLE SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TABLE 2 
PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


RD 


RANGE 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


NO 

FIRE 


RD 


RANGE 
(m) 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


rNo 

FIRE 


RD 


RANGE 

(m) 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


NO 
FIRE 


RD 


RANGE 


TIME 
(sec) 


HIT 


MISS 


NO 
FIRE 


1 


50L 


3 


* 






11 


100 


8 


* 






1 


100 


5 


X 






11 


150 


8 




V 




2 


200 


6 


X 






12 


200 




* 




2 


200 


8 


X" 






12 


50R 


5 




X 




3 


100 


4 


X 






13 


150 


8 


% 






3 


150 


6 


V 






13 


100 


12 


X 






4 


150 


5 




X 




14 


50R 


X 






4 


SOL 


12 


* 






14 


200 


X 






5 


100 


8 




K 




15 


100 


■ 


X 






5 


200 


X 






15 


150 


12 


X 






6 


150 


5 


X 






16 


150 




X, 




6 


150 


12 


X 






16 


50L 




X 




7 


50R 


3 


* 






17 


200 


6 


X 






7 


100 


x 






17 


100 


12 


X 






8 


200 


6 


* 






18 


150 


5 


V 






8 


50R 


12 


X 






18 


150 


X 






9 


150 


5 


X 






19 


50L 


9 


JC 






9 


150 


X 






19 


200 


12 


X 






10 


250 


7 


K 






20 


250 


% 






10 


100 


8 


X 






20 


100 


X 






TOTAL 


V 


a 


Pf 


TOTAL 


* 


c2 


IP- 


TOTAL 


\o 








TOTAL 


7 


3 





SCORE 


QUALIFICATION SCORE RATINGS (Check One) 
35-40 -EXPERT ^^^ ^^R-23 -- MARKSMAN 
^^24-34-- SHARPSHOOTER 16 AND BELOW -- UNQUALIFIED 


AIMING DEVICE USED (Check One) 

AN/PEQ-2A/B 
*>< AN/PAQ-4B/C 
AN/PVS-4 


TABLE | HIT | MISS | NO FIRE 


1 \ Itm V \ & 


2 \ n 3 «s 


TOTAL | 32 | *7 | 


FIRER'S QUALIFICATION SCORE "£ 2 


REMARKS 


DATE INITIALED. (YYYYMMDD) 


SCORER'S INITIALS 


DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) 


OFFICERS INITIALS 



DA FORM 7489-R, SEP 2008 



DA FORM 7489-R, NOV 2002, IS OBSOLETE. 



Figure B-7. Example of completed DA Form 7489-R 
(Record Night Fire Scorecard). 



SQUAD DESIGNATED MARKSMAN 
RECORD FIRE I AND II 

For use of this form, see FM 3-22 9: the proponent agency is TRADOC. 


ID CODE 


UNIT 


DATE (YYYYMMDD) 

3O0& Of tS~ 


EVALUATOR'SIDCODE 

<Lzz$oot 


RECORD FIRE I - MECHANICAL SIGHT ADJUSTMENT 


RECORD FIRE II - ADJUSTED AIMING POINTS/OPTIC 


TARGET RANGE/POSITION 


HIT 


MISS 


TARGET RANGE/POSITION 


HIT 


MISS 


100m unsupported 


* 




100m unsupported 




X 


J 00m unsupported 


X 




100m unsupported 


X 




100m unsupported 


X 




1 00m unsupported 


X 




100m unsupported 


x 




1 00m unsupported 


X 




200m supported 




X 


200m supported 


X 




200m supported 


* 




200m supported 


y 




200m unsupported 


X 




200m unsupported 


X 




200m unsupported 


X 




200m unsupported 


X 




300m supported 




X 


300m supported 


X 




300m supported 




X 


300m supported 


X 








X 




300m unsupported 


X. 


— 








X 




300m unsupported 


X 




400m supported ^ 


X 




400m supported 


X 




400m supported 


X 




400m supported 


X 




400m supported 


X 




400m supported 


X 




400m supported 


X 




400m supported 


X 




500m supported ^^ "^^^J 


X 




500m supported 


X 




500m supported ^^^ 


X 




500m supported 


X 




500m supported 


X 




500m supported 


X 




500m supported 


X 




500m supported 


X 




TOTAL 


n 


3 


TOTAL 


J<5 


\ 


^ PASS (14-20) FAIL (13 and below) 


X PASS (14-20) FAIL (13 and below) 


DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD) 


SCORER'S INITIALS 

^43 


DATE INITIALED (YYYYMMDD} 


OFFICER'S INITIALS 



DA FORM 7649-R, SEP 2008 



Figure B-8. Example of completed DA Form 7649-R 
(Squad Designated Marksman — Record Fire I and II). 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



B-5 



Appendix B 



COMBAT FIELD FIRE SCORECARD 

For use of this form, see FM 3-22.9; the proponent agency is TRADOC. 




RANK . _ 


UNIT 


EVALUATOR'S NAME 


RANK 


date {YyyyMMDDj 


C7 — ** r 

TABLE 1 
KNEELING UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TOTAL NUMBER 
OF HITS 


RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 




50 (Left) 


2 


31 


7^ 


SI 




50 (Right) 


2 


31 


^ 






100 1 


45 






150 2 


60 


i 


TABLE 2 - SET 1 
BARRICADE SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


^ 


RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 


50 (Left or Right) 


3 


26 


± 


7-llliL 


► 


100 2 


40 


J£ 


<■ 


* 


TABLE 2 - SET 2 ^L^L 
BARRICADE SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 


100 


1 


19 


E 


3 


150 


2 


21 


l* 


200 


1 


40 


\+ 


TABLE 3- SET 1 ^^^k ' ^ 
PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 




RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 


100 


2 


23 


a 


m 


1 




200 


2 


36 


m 


li 




250 


1 


50 


mm 


^k\ TABLE 3 - SET 2 

PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


\o 


RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 


150 


2 


21 


-&- 


!>■ 




250 


2 


37 


i 






300 


1 


50 


£ 




AIMING DEVICE USED (Check One) 


RATINGS 


TOTAL NUMBER 
OF HITS FOR 
ALL TABLES 


"2 IRON SIGHT [J AN/PAS-13(DAY) 
| | BACKUP IRON SIGHT ] AN/PAS-13 (NIGHT) 
CT M68, CCO ~\ AN/PAQ-4B/C 

J ACOG ] AN/PEQ-2A/B 


[J Trained - 24 to 26 hits 
J Partially Trained - 16 to 23 hits 
Untrained - 1 5 or fewer hits 


2^ 


REMARKS 




EVALUATOR'S INITIALS sff^AA 


DATE INITIALED ^ ^ ^ £ £ 


OFFICER'S INITIALS , / s 


DATEINITIALED ^ & ,j & f ^ ^ 



*Figure B-9. Example of completed DA Form 7682-R 
(Combat Field Fire Scorecard). 



B-6 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Appendix F 

10-Meter Target Offsets and 25-Meter Zero Offsets 

*This section provides the 10-meter target offsets and the 25-meter zero offsets for 
Ml 6- and M4-series weapons mounted with iron sights, optics, MILES, or aiming 
lasers. A blank, reproducible 10-meter target offset (Figure F-2) and an example of 
each weapon configuration (Figures F-3 through F-6) are provided. The M16A2 
300-meter zeroing target is used for 25-meter zeroing with all weapon configurations, 
except when zeroing with iron sights. 200-meter supplemental zero 10- and 25-meter 
offsets are also shown in Figures F-7 through F-10. 

MARKING 10-METER TARGET OFFSETS 

F- 1 . To mark the proper 1 0-meter target offsets — 

(1) Find the correct template for the weapon configuration. 

(2) Starting from the center of the borelight circle on the offset, count the number of squares to the 
desired point of aim. 



EXAMPLE 



L2.0, U2.4 



Starting from the center of the borelight circle (0.0, 0.0), move left 2 squares and up 
2.4 squares. 



NOTE: Each template also provides a number formula for the proper offset. 



(3) Place the appropriate symbol or mark (Figure F-l). 



+ 


Laser/ Optic 

Desired Point of Impact 


- 


MILES Laser 


• 


AN/PEQ-2A Illuminator 


0+# 


AN/PAS-13TWS 



Figure F-1. 10-meter target offset symbols. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



F-1 



Appendix F 



MARKING 25-METER ZERO OFFSETS 

F-2. To mark the proper 2 5 -meter zero offsets — 

(1) Use only a M16A2 300-meter zeroing target. 

(2) Find the correct target template for the weapon configuration. 

(3) Count the number of squares, starting from the center of the 300-meter zeroing silhouette. 

(4) Mark the designated strike point by drawing a small circle at the appropriate number of squares 
from the center of the 300-meter zeroing silhouette. 

(5) Draw a 4- by 4-centimeter square, keeping the designated strike point at the center. 

NOTES: 1. To reproduce the 10-meter target offset, copy the blank 10-meter target offset 
and place the example of the weapon being used on the back. This reproducible 
copy can be laminated and used repeatedly. 

2. Table F-l provides offset mounting information for various weapon 
configurations. 



F-2 FM 3-22.9, C1 10 February 2011 



10-Meter Target Offsets and 25-Meter Zero Offsets 



10-METER BORESIGHT TARGET 































































































































































































































































































































































































































r 


V 


-LAS 


ERB 


OREL 


_IGH" 


r 
























K. 































































































































































































1 - USE THE CORRECT OFFSET FOR THE WEAPON, SIGHT AND LOCATION CONFIGURED 

2 - STABILIZE THE WEAPON AND THE OFFSET 

3 - ZERO BORELIGHT WHILE INSIDE THE BARREL OF THE WEAPON 

4 - ALIGN THE LASER OF THE BORELIGHT WITH THE DOT ON THE 10M OFFSET 

5 - ALIGN THE MILES LASER WITH THE MILES RECTANGLE ON THE 10M OFFSET (IF APPLICABLE) 

6 - ADJUST AIMING LASER UNTIL CENTERED ON CROSSHAIR 

7 - PLACE OPTIC AIMPOINT CENTERED ON CROSSHAIR AND MAKE ADJUSTMENTS ON OPTIC 
UNTIL THE BORELIGHT LASER IS ALIGNED WITH THE DOT ON THE 10M OFFSET 

8 - RECONFIRM ALL DEVICES ARE STILL ALIGNED TO THEIR AIMING MARK 



US Army ARDEC 
AMSTA-AR-CCL-A 
AMSTA-AR-FSF-R 
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07089 



Figure F-2. Blank 10-meter target offset. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



F-3 



Appendix F 



10 Meter Boresight Tgt-AN/PAQ-4B/C Mtd on 
M4/M4A1 Using the M4/M16 Mounting Rail 

























































































































ua 






.aser- 




















k 
























V 






















L1.85,U2.54 




/ 




































r 


fr 


-L 


ise 






Lig 




















/ 




'y 


r (..« 








MILES LASER 




zr 






\ 


'. 














L2.0, U0.9 
























































































































































































































































































US Army ARDEC 
AMSTA-AR-CCL-A 
AMSTA-AR-FSF-R 
Picatinriy Arsenal, NJ 07806 
Grids are 1 cm wide by 1 cm high. Units must locally manufacture. 



M1 6A2 with AN/PAQ4B/C Mounted on Top of Hand 
Guards Using the M4/M16A2 Bracket 

25 METER ZEROING TARGET 

M16A2/M16A4 

, 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 „ 







W 


ufi 
HT 


I I I 


I 


-1^-1 














RE 
sir 


r~ 


300 METERS 


1 \Z) 

REAR 

SIGHT 












































1.51 


LOCKS 

GHT 










r§ 
















*4— 


K R 




<" 


i- 




-%J)~ 




















1 1 


'=_ 




SIGHT 
















/ 


DESIGI 


JATED ht 
POINT 


























































1 






















- 


■-- 


~ "0.5 BLOCKS UP 




















1 




















































\ 


DESIGNATED 






^ 












3 no meter; 






FRONT 
SIGHT 




^ojr- 






























SIGHT 




































T^ 
















4^- 
















yV 
















r^ 
















SIGHT 
















SIGHT 














I I I 












1 1 1 









27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 

ER0 TARGET DATA FOR M16A2/M1SA4 RIFLE 

FOR ZEROING AT 25 METER:!., ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNuE TO THE Mij METEF: JETTING . THEN 

:L:ii:ii , ....-?EiuPior.Ei:. :!■ past the sou meter setti-h:- fcs m it rifle :i ■ 

PAST THE 300 METER SETTING FOR THE M1GA4 RIFLE. 

AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP CENTER AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE 

WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER OF TARGET. 

AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO. ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB COUNTER-CLOCKWISE 

[DOWN ] NE CLIC K TO TH l- I . G F R TH E M1 6A2 R I FLE , DOWN TWO CLICK S TO TH E : • 

S E TTI N G F R TH E M 1 F; P4 R I F L E . T H E W E AP N Wl LL B E I E R ED F R '5 n n M E T E R ":■ . 



Figure F-3. M16A2 10-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets. 



10 Meter Boresight Tgt-AN/PAQ-4B/C Mtd on M16 MWS Using 
AN/PAQ-4B/C spacer and Picatinny Rail Grabber on Left Side Rail 















































































































MILES LASER 






























Lz 


-U, 


JU. 


i 










































( 


\ 


Li 


ise 






-■g 
























v 








' ArasrMM-4t$yu 
Aiming Laser 










\ 
























■• 





























u 








i 


































Y 




































\ 








































L6.03 D4.25 







































































































































































































US Army ARDEC 
AMSTA-AR CCL-A 
AMSTA-AR FSF-R 
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07886 
Grids are 1 cm wide by 1cm high. Units must locally manufacture. 



M4 MWS with AN/PAQ-4 mounted on left side rail 
with Bracket Assembly 



25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M16A2/M16A4 



15 12 9 6 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27„ 







\^L_ 














-4£U- 












REAR 

SIGHT 




DESIGNATED 




I yp I 




















^^^^ 












I I 
















FRONT 
SIGHT 




I I 














Jgk 




STRIKE ZONE 






















6.1 BLOCKS 


















4.9 BLOCKS ! 




UP 


















: 




































v 




































AIM 


NG 


30^ 


T 


































4 


^ 












300 METERS 












f 


* 


?' 






























< 


SIGHT 






























SIGHT 








f^ 






ZEROED FOR 






TO 














r^Ji 










\V 














SIGHT 




SIGHT 












I i I 




I I I 







27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 

ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M16Ai('ll1SA4 RIFLE 

1- FOR ZEROING AT25 METERS, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB TO THE 300 METER SETTING . THEN 
CLOCKWISE IUP1 ONE CLICK PAST THE 300 METER SETTING F0RM16Ai R: r . :. 'i nr,', ~ ; Up] TWO CLICKS 
-.-'.: TTI IE 300 METER SETTING FOR THE M16A4 RIFLE. 

2- AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP CENTER AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE 
WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER OF TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB COUNTERCLOCKWISE 
( DOWN) NE CLIC K TO TH E 300 METER SETTINGFORTHE M16A2 RIFLE. DOWN [WO CLICK', Tj IHL.UJ ME~E / 
S ETTIN G F R T.H E III BM R I FLE. THE WEAPON V.I LL b . J METERS . 



Figure F-4. M4 MWS 10-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets. 



F-4 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



10-Meter Target Offsets and 25-Meter Zero Offsets 



10 Meter Boresight Tgt-AN. PAO-4B/C Mtd on M4 MWS Using AN/PAQ- 
4B/C Spacer and Picatinny Rail Grabber on Left Side Rail 



M4/M4A1 with AN/PA<MB/C Mounted on Hand 
Guards using the M4/M16 Mounting Rail 















































































































MlLbS LASbK 






























U 


■ U, 


ju.y 










































f 


\ 


-Laser Bore 


Lig 
























\ 






Aiming Laser 










'"■■ 





















































u 








I 


































Y 












































































L6.03 D4.25 







































































































































































































25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M16A2/M16A4 



, 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 



9 12 15 18 21 24 27 „ 







^-L 






ill I ^-S. 1 
1.5RIOCKS I <^ I 












REAR 
SIGHT 








RIGHT 


REAR 

SIGHT 






















«— IW 


















1 1 


























n 






DESIGNATED 


\ 
















ik 


w 

FRONT 
SIGHT 






POINT 




















hs? 
























SIGHT 


























!-.. 


























2.5 BLOCKS 
UP 












































DESIGNATED 
STRIKE 


-'""" 
























~~ " 






























tfSH 












' 300 METER J 












^ 










Aiming 
Point — 




















^Q. 




SIGHT 
























SIGHT 








fj* 


















If) 














REAR 
SIGHT 






ZEROED FOR 




kJ 






















SIGHT 












1 1 1 














I I I 







US Army ARDEC 
AMSTA-AR-CCL-A 
AMSTA-AR-FSFR 
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806 
Grids are 1 cm wide by 1 cm high. Units must locally manufacture. 



10 
27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 

ZERO TARGET DATA FOR MISftJ/MISAfl RIFLE 

1- FOR ZEROING AT :■?. METERS. ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB TO THE 300 METER SETTING . THEN 
." I fif ■h-'.v .r | if | n'lE CLICK FAST THE 300 METER SETTING FOR M16A2 RIFLE, CLOCKWISE (UP)TWO CLICKS 
PAST THE 300 METER SETTING FOR THE M16M RIFLE. 

2- Ml (I AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP CENTER AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE 
WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER OF TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB COUNTER. CI -ir :-:■■•.• : ; . F 
(DOWN) ONE CLICK TO THE 300 METER SETTING FOR THE M16AZ RIFLE. DOWN TWO CLICKS TO THE 300 METER 
SETTING FOR THE M16A4 RIFLE. "HE -YE MP UN VilLL BE ZEROED FORM 



Figure F-5. M4/M4A1 10-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets. 



10 METER BORESIGHT OFFSET TARGET 
































































































































































































































































































































































































































— 


LASE 


RBC 


REL 


GHT 





















































































































































































































rail witn Bracket Assembly 

25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M16A2/M16A4 



„ 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 ! 21 24 27 „ 







^L 






DESIGNATED 






nu 






F 
















I 




«fl 








SIGHT 




DESIGNATED 






















i 


\ 














8.1 BLOCKS 
UP 








¥3 


■:■■ 




















~\J~ 


SIGHT 


















I I 




;.i:.h- 


















RIGHT 


H 












AIMING POINT ...|Q| 






























' 






























































































i 


9 












300 METERS 












f^ 


■J 






























^L 




SIGHT 






























SIGHT 








W 






ZEROED FOR 






z 


h 














v^Zn 










V 














SIGHT 


| | 


SIGHT 












I I I 




I I I 







27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 

ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M16A2/M16A4 RIFLE 

1- FOR ZEROING AT 25 METERS. ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB TO THE 500 METER SETTING . THEN 
CLOCKWISE IU PI ONE CLICK PAST THE 300 METER SETTING FOR M1EA2 RIFLE. CLQCKY 'P [ I IP i [>T. > . 
PAST THE 300 METER SETTING FOR THE M1SA4 RIFLE. 

2- Al M AT TARGET ENTER, ADJUST SIGHTS TO M OVE S. H OT GR LI P c ENTE R AS c: L :. E AS :=' S SIBL E TO TH E 
WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER OF TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB COUNTER-CLOCKWISE 
inuV'.'f-r ONE CLICK Tu 'HE >.u: METFR SETTING FOR THE Mlt.t RIFLE, DOWN TWO CLICKS TO THFSilil '1FTFP 
SETTING FOR THE M16A4 RIFLE. THE WEAPON WILL BE ZEROED FOR 300 METERS . 



Figure F-6. M16A4 MWS 10-meter boresighting target/25-meter zeroing target offsets. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



F-5 



Appendix F 



Table F-1. Offset mounting. 



WEAPON 


ACCESSORY 


RAIL 
GRABBER 


MOUNT 


LOCATION 


RANGE 

TO 
ZERO 


ZERO 
OFFSET 


BORESIGHT 
TARGET 


MILES 
OFFSET 


M16A2 


Iron sight 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


300 m 


0.0 0.0 


0.0 4.2U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16A2 


M68 


N/A 


M68 

gooseneck 

bracket 


Carrying 
handle 


300 m 


0.0 1.4 
cm DN 


0.0 5.2U 


2.0L2.4U 


M16A2 


LTWS 


TWS 


TWS 

bracket 

assembly 


Carrying 
handle 


300 m 


0.0 10D 


0.0 13.4U 


2.0L2.4U 


M16A2 


TWS 


N/A 


TWS 

bracket 

assembly 


Carrying 
handle 


300 m 


0.0 8.1D 


0.0 11.5U 


2.0L2.4U 


M16A2 


AN/PVS-4 


N/A 


AN/PVS-4 

mounting 

knob 


Carrying 
handle 


300 m 


0.0 7.0D 


0.0 9.4U 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A2 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


N/A 


M4/M16 
bracket 


Hand 
guards 


300 m 


1.5R 
0.5U 


1.85L2.54U 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A2 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


N/A 


M4/M16 
bracket 


Hand 
guards 


300 m 


1.5L0.5U 


1.8R2.4U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16/M203 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


N/A 


Spacer 

and 

AN/PVS-4 

mounting 

knob 


Carrying 
handle 


300 m 


1.85R 
2.6D 


1.85L8.6U 


2.0L3.9U 


M16/M203 


AN/PVS-4 


N/A 


AN/PVS-4 
mounting 
bracket 
assembly 


Carrying 
handle 


300 m 


4.2R 
9.8D 


TBD 


2.0L0.9U 


M4/M4A1 


BUIS 


N/A 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 0.0 


0.0 4.01U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4/M4A1 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


N/A 


M4/M16 
bracket 


Hand 
guards 


300 m 


1.5R 
2.5U 


1.85L2.54U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4/M4A1 


LTWS 


TWS 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 4.5D 


0.0 7.9U 


TBD 


M4/M4A1 


TWS 


Picatinny 


TWS 
spacer 
and rail 
grabber 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 5.7D 


0.0 9.4U 


2.0L2.4U 


M4/M4A1 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


N/A 


M4/M16 
bracket 


Hand 
guards 


300 m 


1.0L0.3U 


1.8R2.4U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4/M4A1 


AN/PVS-4 


Picatinny 


Spacer 
and rail 
grabber 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 3.4D 


0.0 7.6U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M4/M4A1 


M68 


M68 


Half-moon 
spacer 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 1.4 
cm DN 


0.0 5.63U 


2.0L2.4U 


M4/M203 


BUIS 


N/A 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 0.0 


0.0 6.01U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4/M203 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


N/A 


Spacer 

and 

AN/PVS-4 

mounting 

knob 


Carrying 
handle 


300 m 


1.3R 
1.9D 


1.85L8.6U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4/M203 


AN/PVS-4 


Picatinny 


Spacer 
and rail 
grabber 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 3.4D 


0.0 9.6U 


2.0L 3.9U 


NOTE: Target offsets not yet developed are indicated by TBD (to be developed). 



F-6 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



10-Meter Target Offsets and 25-Meter Zero Offsets 



Table F-1. Offset mounting (continued). 



WEAPON 


ACCESSORY 


RAIL 
GRABBER 


MOUNT 


LOCATION 


RANGE 

TO 
ZERO 


ZERO 
OFFSET 


BORESIGHT 
TARGET 


MILES 
OFFSET 


M4MWS 


BUIS 


N/A 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 0.0 


0.0 4.01U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PVS-4 


Picatinny 


Spacer 
and rail 
grabber 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 3.4D 


0.0 7.6U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


M68 


M68 


Rail 
grabber 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 1.4 
cm DN 


0.0 5.63U 


2.0L2.4U 


M4MWS 


LTWS 


TWS 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 4.5D 


0.0 7.9U 


2.0L2.4U 


M4MWS 


TWS 


TWS 


Spacer 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 5.7D 


0.0 9.4U 


2.0L2.4U 


M4MWS 


ANPEQ-2A 


Insight 


N/A 


Left 


300 m 


TBD 


4.5L1.0D 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Insight 


N/A 


Right 


300 m 


N/A 


5.5R5.4D 


2.0L 0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Insight 


N/A 


Top 


300 m 


1.5L0.5D 


2.9R2.3U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Top 


300 m 


N/A 


1.95R4.1U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Right 


300 m 


N/A 


6.35R4.4D 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Left 


300 m 


6.9R2.0U 


6.2L0.60D 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Insight 


Training 
adapter 


Top 


300 m 


2.0L 1.5D 


N/A 


2.0L 0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Picatinny 


AN/PAQ- 
4B/C 
bracket 
adapter 


Top 


300 m 


4.9R6.1U 


1.75L3.9U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Picatinny 


AN/PAQ- 

4B/C 

bracket 

adapter 

(spacer) 


Right 


300 m 


N/A 


6.9R0.9D 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Insight 


N/A 


Top 


300 m 


N/A 


1.75L2.15U 


2.0L0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Insight 


N/A 


Right 


300 m 


N/A 


4.35R 0.65D 


2.0L 0.9U 


M4MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Insight 


N/A 


Left 


300 m 


N/A 


4.30L4.25D 


2.0L 0.9U 


M4MWS 
M203 


BUIS 


N/A 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 0.0 


0.0 6.01U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M4MWS 
M203 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Picatinny 


Bracket 
adapter 
(spacer 


Left 


300 m 


4.9R6.1U 


6.0L4.0D 


2.0L3.9U 


M4MWS 
M203 


AN/PVS-4 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 3.4D 


0.0 9.6U 


2.0L3.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


BUIS 


N/A 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 0.0 


0.0 4.01U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Picatinny 


AN/PAQ- 

4B/C 

bracket 

adapter 

(spacer) 


Left 


300 m 


6.5R8.1U 


6.03L 4.25D 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


TWS 


TWs 


Spacer 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 6.0D 


0.0 9.4U 


2.0L2.4U 


M16A4 
MWS 


M68 


M68 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 1.4 
cm DN 


0.0 5.63U 


2.0L2.4U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Insight 


N/A 


Left 


300 m 


3.0R3.0U 


4.5L 1.0D 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PVS-4 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 4.6D 


0.0 7.6U 


2.0L0.9U 


NOTE: Target offsets not yet developed are indicated by TBD (to be developed). 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



F-7 



Appendix F 







Table F-1. Offset mounting (continued). 






WEAPON 


ACCESSORY 


RAIL 
GRABBER 


MOUNT 


LOCATION 


RANGE 

TO 
ZERO 


ZERO 
OFFSET 


BORESIGHT 
TARGET 


MILES 
OFFSET 


M16A4 

MWS 

M203 


BUIS 


N/A 


N/A 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 0.0 


0.0 6.01U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16A4 

MWS 

M203 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Picatinny 


AN/PAQ- 

4B/C 

bracket 

adapter 

(spacer 


Left 


300 m 


6.5R8.1U 


6.0L4.0D 


2.0L3.9U 


M16A4 

MWS 

M203 


AN/PVS-4 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Upper 
receiver 


300 m 


0.0 4.6D 


0.0 9.6U 


2.0L3.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Left 


300 m 


6.0R2.0U 


6.2L 0.60D 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Right 


300 m 


TBD 


6.35R4.4D 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Picatinny 


Spacer 


Top 


300 m 


TBD 


1.95R4.1U 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Insight 


N/A 


Right 


300 m 


TBD 


5.5R5.4D 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Insight 


N/A 


Top 


300 m 


1.5L0.5D 


2.0R2.3U 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PEQ-2A/B 


Insight 


Training 
adapter 


Top 


300 m 


2.0L 1.5D 


TBD 


2.0L 0.9D 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Picatinny 


AN/PAQ- 
4B/C 
bracket 
adapter 


Top 


300 m 


4.9R6.1U 


1.75L3.9U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Picatinny 


AN/PAC- 
4B/C 
bracket 
adapter 


Right 


300 m 


N/A 


6.0R0.9D 


2.0L0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Insight 


N/A 


Top 


300 m 


N/A 


1.75L2.15U 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Insight 


N/A 


Right 


300 m 


N/A 


4.35R0.65D 


2.0L 0.9U 


M16A4 
MWS 


AN/PAQ-4B/C 


Insight 


N/A 


Left 


300 m 


N/A 


4.30L4.25D 


2.0L 0.9U 


NOTE: Target offsets not yet developed are indicated by TBD (to be developed). 



F-8 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



10-Meter Target Offsets and 25-Meter Zero Offsets 



*MARKING 25-METER ZERO OFFSETS FOR 200 METERS 

F-3. To mark the proper 25-meter zero offsets for 200 meters (Figures F-7 through F-10) — 

(1) Use an M16A2 300-meter zeroing target. 

NOTE: If zeroing iron sights, use the target appropriate to the weapon being zeroed. 

(2) Find the correct target template for the weapon configuration. 

(3) Count the number of squares, starting from the center of the 300-meter zeroing silhouette. 

(4) Mark the designated strike point by drawing a small circle at the appropriate number of squares 
from the center of the 300-meter zeroing silhouette. 

(5) Draw a 4- by 4-centimeter square, keeping the designated strike point at the center. 

NOTE: For zeroing at 25 meters with the BUIS (Figure F-7), place the elevation knob on the 
200-meter setting. The point of impact for the rounds will be a 4- by 4-centimeter square, with 
the center of the square 2.5 centimeters down from the target's center of mass. 



10Meter TGT, M16A2 Iron Sights for 200 meter zero 



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US Army ARDEC 
AMSTA-AR-CCL-A 
AMSTA-AR-FSF-R 
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 0780 
Grids are 1cm wide by 1cm high. Units must locally manufacture, 





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25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M4 CARBINE 

(NSN 6920-01-395-2949) 
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ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M4 CARBINE: 

1- FOR ZEROING AT 25 METERS, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION KNOB 
TO THE 300 METER (6/3) SETTING, (DO NOT USE THE T MARK ON THE 
ELEVATION KNOB). 

2- AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP CENTER 
AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER OF THE TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETNG THE 25 METER ZERO, THE WEAPON WILL BE ZEROED 
FOR 300 METERS . 



^Figure F-7. 200-meter zero of the back-up iron sights for M4 carbine. 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



F-9 



Appendix F 



NOTE: For zeroing at 25 meters with the BUIS (Figure F-8), place the elevation knob on the 
200-meter setting. The point of impact for the rounds will be a 4- by 4-centimeter square, with the 
center of the square 2.5 centimeters down from the target's center of mass. 



IQMeter TGT, M16A2 Iron Sights for 200 meter zero 























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USArmyARDEC 
AMSTA-AR-CCL-A 
AMSTA-AR-FSF-R 
Pieatinny Arsenal, NJ 07306 

Grids are 1cm wide by 1cm high. Units must locally manufacture, 



25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M16A2 

(NSN 6920-01-395-2949) 



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21 24 27 



ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M16A2 RIFLE: 



FOR ZEROING AT 25 METERS, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION 

KNOB TO THE 300 METER SETTING, THEN CLOCKWISE (UP) ONE CLICK 

PAST THE 300 METER SETTING. 

AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP 

CENTER AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER 

OF THE TARGET. 

AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT 

ELEVATION KNOB BACK COUNTER-CLOCKWISE (DOWN) ONE CLICK TO 

THE 300 METER SETTING. THE WEAPON WILL BE ZEROED FOR 300 METERS . 



*Figure F-8. 200-meter zero of the back-up iron sights for M16-series weapons. 

NOTE: For zeroing at 25 meters with the CCO (Figure F-9), place the dot at the target's center 
of mass. The point of impact for the rounds will be a 4- by 4-centimeter square, with the center 
of the square three centimeters down from the target's center of mass. 



10m BoresiahtTot 
MBS CCO far M4.M1 6 - 200 Meter Zero 



































































































































































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Zero Target Data for M4JM16A 
1. Stabilize Weapon. 

2 Align Laser Borelight on its dot 
3. Ad ju&tM68 until it is centered on t 
dot-cross hair 



CanfrMif OAABt7.ti.tLW* 

10m Bore Sight Target for 200rnZero 
(AUG 09 -DRAFT) 

PM Soldier Weapons 
ARDEOFire Control 
Pieatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806 



25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M16A2 

(NSN 6920-01-395-2949) 









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2t 24 ST 



Gridsare 1cm wide by 1cm high. Units may Locally Manufacture 



ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M16A2 RIFLE: 

1- FOR ZEROING AT 25 METERS, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION 
KNOB TO THE 300 METER SETTING, THEN CLOCKWISE (UP) ONE CLICK 
PAST THE 300 METER SETTING. 

2- AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP 
CENTER AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER 
OF THE TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT 
EljEVATION KNOB BA_CK _COUNTER^L_OCKWISE jDjDWN^ONE CLICK TO _ 



THE 300 METER SETTING. THE 



WILL BE ZEROED FOR 300 METERS . 



*Figure F-9. 200-meter zero of the close combat optic for M16-series weapons. 



F-10 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



10-Meter Target Offsets and 25-Meter Zero Offsets 



NOTES: 1. When zeroing the ACOG (Figure F-10), a 100-meter true zero is preferred. When 
engaging targets at 200 meters with the ACOG, use the 200-meter aiming point tip 
(tip at the inside of the chevron), if time allows (Figure F-l 1). 

2. For the ACOG 25-meter zero, Soldiers should use the 300-meter point of aim (tip 
of the 300-meter post at the target's center of mass) and point of impact 
(a 4- by 4-centimeter square drawn 1.5 centimeters down from the target's center 
of mass). 

3. The 10-meter boresight offset shown in Figure F-10 is for use with the Ml 50 rifle 
combat optic. Soldiers equipped with earlier versions of the ACOG should use the 
M68 CCO 10-meter boresight offset for 300 meters. 



10 Meter Boresight Tgtfor M150 RCO Mtd on M4/M16A4 
Upper Receiver Rail 











































































































































































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USArmy ARDEC 
AMSTA-AR-CCL-A 
AMSTA-AR-FSF-R 
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806 
Grids are 1cm wide by 1cm high. Units must locally manufacture. 



27 


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25 METER ZEROING TARGET 
M16A2 

(NSN 6920-01-395-2949) 




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ZERO TARGET DATA FOR M16A2 RIFLE: 

1- FOR ZEROING AT 25 METERS, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT ELEVATION 
KNOB TO THE 300 METER SETTING, THEN CLOCKWISE (UP) ONE CLICK 
PAST THE 300 METER SETTING. 

2- AIM AT TARGET CENTER. ADJUST SIGHTS TO MOVE SHOT GROUP 
CENTER AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE WHITE DOT IN THE CENTER 
OF THE TARGET. 

3- AFTER COMPLETING THE 25 METER ZERO, ROTATE THE REAR SIGHT 



THE 30Q METER SETTING. THE WEAPON WILL BE ZEROED FOR 300 METERS . 



*Figure F-10. 300-meter zero of the advanced combat optical gunsight. 



200M 
Aiming Point 




Tip of Chevron 
100M Point 



Tip of the Vertical Post 

300M & 25M 
Zeroing Aiming Point 



*Figure F-11. Advanced combat optical gunsight points of aim (100 to 300 meters). 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



F-11 



This page intentionally left blank. 



*lndex 



NUMBERS 

10-meter boresight (see also 
weapon characteristics, 
accessories, and ammunition), 
2-33 to 2-34 
10-meter boresight, 2-34, 2-34 

(illus) 
borelight, 2-33 to 2-34, 2-33 (illus) 

* 10-meter target offsets, F-l to F-8 
marking, F-l, F-l (illus), 
F-3 (illus), F-4 (illus), F-5 (illus), 
F-6 to F-8 (table) 

*25-meter zero offsets (see also 
weapon characteristics, 
accessories, and ammunition 
and zeroing procedures), 
2-34, 2-34 (illus), F-2 to F-l 1 
marking, F-2 
M16A2,F-4 (illus) 
M16A4MWS,F-5(z7/i^) 
M4IM4AI,? -5 (illus) 
M4 MWS, F-4 (illus) 
*oflfeet mounting, F-6 to F-8 (table) 
marking for 200 meters, F-9, 

F-9 (illus) 
advanced combat optic 

gunsight, F-l 1, F-l 1 (illus) 
close combat optic, F-10, 

F -10 (illus) 
iron sights/back-up iron 

sights, F-10, F-10 (illus) 



accessories (see also weapon 
characteristics, accessories, 
and ammunition), 2-16 to 2-39 

advanced combat optical 
gunsight (see also advanced 
combat optical gunsight, 
M4-series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 2-31 to 2-33 
2-31 (illus) 

AN/PEQ-15 advanced target 
pointer/illuminator/aiming 
light (see also AN/PEQ-15 
advanced target pointer/- 
illuminator/aiming light, 
M4- series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 2-24 to 2-25, 
2-25 (illus) 



AN/PVS-4 night vision sight (see 
also AN/PVS-4 night vision 
sight, M4-series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 2-28 to 2-29, 
2-28 (illus) 

backup iron sight (see also 
backup iron sight), 2-30, 2-30 
(illus) 

characteristics, 2-16 (table) 

compatibility and mounting, 2-16 
(table) 

heavy thermal weapon sight (see 
also heavy weapon thermal 
sight, M4-series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 2-26 to 2-27, 
2-26 (illus) 

infrared aiming light (see also 
infrared aiming light , 
M4- series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 
2-19 to 2-21, 2-19 (illus) 

light thermal weapon sight (see 
also light thermal weapon 
sight, M4-series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 2-26 to 2-27, 
2-26 (illus) 

M68 close combat optic (see also 
M68 close combat optic, 
M4- series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 2-17 to 2-19, 
2-17 (illus) 

target pointer/illuminator/aiming 
light (see also target pointer/ 
illuminator/aiming light, 
M4- series carbine, and 
M16-series rifle), 2-21 to 2-24, 
2-22 (illus) 

accessory mounting (see also 
weapon characteristics, 
accessories, and ammunition), 
2-10 to 2-16 

M4/M5 adapter rail system (see 
also M4/M5 adapter rail 
system), 2-10 to 2-13, 2-3 
(illus), 2-11 (illus) 

rail grabbers (see also rail 
grabbers), 2-13 to 2-16 



advanced combat optical 
gunsight (see also 
accessories, M4-series 
carbine, M16-series rifle, 
and advanced optics, 
lasers, and iron sights), 
2-31 to 2-33, 2-31 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-7 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-32 to 2-33, 

2-32 (illus), 2-33 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-32 to 2-33, 

2-32 (illus), 2-33 (illus) 
M16A3, 2-32 to 2-33, 

2-32 (illus), 2-33 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-31 to 2-32, 

2-31 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-31 to 2-32, 

2-31 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 

8-16 to 8-20, 8-17 (table) 
concept, 8-17 
conduct of training, 8-17 
modified fundamentals, 

8-19 
operation, 8-17 to 8-18, 

8-18 (illus) 
practice qualification, 

8-19 
record qualification, 8-20 
target detection, 8-19 
zeroing the advanced 

combat optical gunsight, 

8-18 to 8-19, 8-18 

(illus), 8-19 (illus) 

advanced optics, lasers, and 
iron sights (see also 
accessories), 8-1 to 8-30 
borelight (see also 

borelight), 8-1 to 8-11 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-11 to 8-28 

^advanced rifle marksmanship, 
7-1 to 7-74 
advanced firing positions 
(see also firing positions), 
7-1 to 7-8 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



lndex-1 



Index 



chemical, biological, 
radiological, and nuclear 
firing (see also chemical, 
biological, radiological, and 
nuclear firing), 7-24 to 7-29 

* combat field fire 

(see also combat field 

fire), 7-57 to 7-62 
combat fire techniques (see 

also combat fire techniques), 

7-8 to 7-24 
moving target engagements 

(see also moving target 

engagements), 7-36 to 7-41, 

7-36 (table) 
night fire training (see also 

night fire training), 7-30 to 7-35 
short-range marksmanship 

training (see also short-range 

marksmanship training), 

7-41 to 7-57 

* squad designated marksman 

training (see also squad 
designated marksman 
training), 7-62 to 7-74 

aided night vision (see also aided 

night vision), C-4 to C-9 

aiming lasers (see also aiming 

lasers), C-6 
electromagnetic (light) spectrum, 
C-4 
image-intensification 

devices, C-4 
thermal weapon sight, C-4 
image-intensification devices, 
C-4 to C-5 
adjustments, C-4 to C-5 
thermal weapon sight (see also 
thermal weapon sight), C-6 
to C-9 

aiming lasers (see also night 
fighting and aided night 
vision), C-6 

infrared discipline, C-6 

scanning, C-6 

walking, C-6 

alternate qualification courses 
(see also field fire and 
record qualification), 6-17 to 
6-21 

15 -meter scaled target alternate 
course, 6-21 

2 5 -meter scaled target alternate 
course, 6-18 to 6-20 



^conduct, 6-18 to 6-19, 6-19 (table) 

time between firing positions, 

6-19 
*duties of range personnel, 6-19 
ratings, 6-20, 6-20 (table) 
scoring, 6-20 
known distance record fire range, 

6-17 to 6-18 
conduct, 6-18, 6-18 (table) 
qualification ratings, 6-18, 

6-18 (table) 
record of performance, 6-18 

ammunition (see also weapon 

characteristics, accessories, and 
ammunition), 2-35 to 2-39 

authorized ammunition, 2-35 to 
2-36, 2-35 (table), 2-36 (table) 

storage, 2-39 

trajectory, 2-37 to 2-39, 2-37 
(illus), 2-38 (illus), 2-39 (illus) 

AN/PEQ-15 advanced target 

pointer/illuminator/aiming light 
(see also accessories, M4- 
series carbine, and M16-series 
rifle), 2-24 to 2-25, 2-25 (illus) 
mounting on 
M16A4, 2-25, 2-25 (illus) 
M4 MWS, 2-25, 2-25 (illus) 

AN/PVS-4 night vision sight (see 
also accessories, M4-series 
carbine, M16-series rifle, and 
advanced optics, lasers, and 
iron sights), 2-28 to 2-29, 2-28 
(illus) 
mounting on 
M16A4, 2-28 to 2-29, 2-28 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-28 to 2-29, 2-28 

(illus) 
M16A1, 2-29, 2-29 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-29, 2-29 (illus) 
Ml 6 A3, 2-29, 2-29 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-10 to 8-11 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 8-28 
to 8-30, 8-28 (table) 
25-meter zeroing procedures, 

8-29 
concept, 8-29 
conduct of training, 8-29 
field fire, 8-30 

modified fundamentals, 8-29 
practice qualification, 8-30 
record qualification, 8-30 
target detection, 8-30 



automatic or burst fire (see 

also combat fire 

techniques), 7-12 to 7-16 
effectiveness and control, 

7-12 
factors for use, 7-12 to 7-13 
modifications, 7-13 to 7-14 
training, 7-15 to 7-16, 7-15 

(table) 

B 

backup iron sight (see also 
accessories and advanced 
optics, lasers, and iron 
sights), 2-30, 2-30 (illus) 
boresighting using, 8-6 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-11 to 8-12, 8-11 (table) 
concept, 8-11 
conduct of training, 8-12 

^ballistics (see also downrange 
feedback), 5-33 to 5-38 
*bullet dispersion at range, 
5-37 
^increase of shot group 
size, 5-38, 5-38 (illus) 
*minute of angle, 5-37, 
5-38 (illus) 
^external ballistics, 5-35 to 
5-37 
*air resistance (drag), 5-35 

* altitude or air density, 

5-35 
*angles, 5-36 to 5-37 

* gravity, 5-35 
*muzzle velocity, 5-35 

* temperature, 5-35 
^trajectory, 5-36 
*wind, 5-36 

^internal ballistics, 5-33 to 
5-34, 5-34 (illus) 
*M855andM193 
ammunition, 5-33 to 
5-34, 5-34 (illus) 

* terminal ballistics, 5-37 

borelight (see also advanced 
optics, lasers, and iron 
sights), 8-1 to 8-11 
boresighting, 8-6 to 8-11 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight (see also 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight), 8-7 



lndex-2 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Index 



AN/PAQ-4B (see also 

infrared aiming light), 8-8 

to 8-9 
AN/PAQ-4C (see also 

infrared aiming light), 8-8 

to 8-9 
AN/PEQ-2A (see also target 

pointer/illuminator/aiming 

light), 8-9 to 8-10 
AN/PEQ-2B (see also target 

pointer/illuminator/aiming 

light), 8-9 to 8-10 
AN/PVS-4 (see also 

AN/PVS-4 night vision 

sight), 8-10 to 8-11 
thermal weapon sight (see 

also light weapon iron 

sight and heavy weapon 

iron sight), 8-8 
using the backup iron sights 

(see also backup iron 

sights), 8-6 
using the M68 close combat 

optic (see also M68 close 

combat optic), 8-6 to 8-7 
concept, 8-2 

training program, 8-2 (table) 
weapon/aided- vision device 
combinations, 8-1 (table) 
zeroing, 8-2 to 8-5, 8-3 (illus), 
8-4 (illus), 8-5 (illus) 



chemical, biological, radiological, 
and nuclear firing (see also 
advanced rifle 

marksmanship), 7-24 to 7-29 
mission-oriented protective 
posture equipment fire, 
7-24 to 7-29 
modifications, 7-24 to 7-28 

immediate action, 7-25 
marksmanshipfundamentals, 
7-25 to 7-28, 7-26 to 
7- 27 (illus) 
operation and function, 
7-25 
training, 7-28 to 7-29 
50-meter live-fire exercise, 

7-29 
alternate fire exercise, 7-29 
conduct, 7-28, 7-28 (table) 
downrange feedback, 7-28 

to 7-29 
dry-fire exercises, 7-28 



clearing (see also preliminary 
marksmanship instruction), 4-2 
to 4-3, 4-3 (illus) 

*combat field fire (see 
also advanced rifle 
marksmanship), 7-57 to 7-62 
^conduct, 7-58 to 7-62, 7-58 
(table),7-59 (illus), 7-60 
(illus), 7-60 (table), 7-61 
(illus), 7-61 (table), 7-62 (table) 
^concept, 7-57, 7-58 (table) 
^record of performance, 7-62, 
7-62 (table) 

combat fire techniques (see also 

advanced rifle marksmanship), 

7-8 to 7-24 
automatic or burst fire (see also 

automatic or burst fire), 7-12 

to 7-16 
quick fire (see also quick fire), 

7-19 to 7-24 
rapid semiautomatic fire (see 

also rapid semiautomatic fire), 

7-8 to 7-12 
suppressive fire (see also 

suppressive fire), 7-16 to 7-19 

composite risk management, D-3 to 
D-9, D-4 (table), D-5 (table), 
D-6 (table) 

DA Form 7566 (Composite Risk 
Management Worksheet) (see 
also DA Form), D-7 to D-9, 
D-8 (illus), D-9 (table) 

responsibilities, D-6 to D-7 

computer-controlled ranges (see 
also range procedures and 
range operations checklist), 
E-10toE-15 
range selection, E-10 to E-15, 

E-10 (table) 
automated field fire range, 

E-12, E-12 (illus) 
automated record fire range, 

E-13,E-13 (illus) 
modified record fire range, 

E-14,E-14 (illus) 
qualification training 

range, E-15, E-15 (illus) 
rifle/machine gun zero 

range, E-l 1, E-l 1 (illus) 



cycles of functioning (see also 
preliminary marksmanship 
instruction), 4-4 to 4-10 
chambering, 4-5, 4-5 (illus) 
cocking, 4-10, 4-10 (illus) 
ejecting, 4-9, 4-9 (illus) 
extracting, 4-8, 4-8 (illus) 
feeding, 4-4, 4-4 (illus) 
firing, 4-7, 4-7 (illus) 
locking, 4-6, 4-6 (illus) 
unlocking, 4-8, 4-8 (illus) 

D 

DA Form 
3595-R (Record Fire 

Scorecard) 
example of completed 

form, B-3 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
3601-R (Single Target- 
Field Fire I Scorecard) 
example of completed 

form, B-2 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
5239-R(100-,200-, and 

300-Meter Downrange 

Feedback Scorecard) 
example of completed 

form, B-2 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
524 1-R (Single and Multiple 

Targets — Field Fire II 

Scorecard) 
example of completed 

form, B-3 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
5789-R (Record Fire 

Scorecard — Known 

Distance Course) 
example of completed 

form, B-4 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
5790-R (Record Fire 

Scorecard — Scaled 

Target Alternate Course) 
example of completed 

form, B-4 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
7489-R (Record Night Fire 

Scorecard) 
example of completed 

form, B-5 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



lndex-3 



Index 



7566 (Composite Risk 
Management Worksheet) 
(see also composite risk 
management), D-7 to D-9, 
D-8 (illus), D-9 (table) 
7649-R (Squad Designated 

Marksman — Record Fire I 

and II) 
example of completed form, 

B-5 (illus) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
7650-R (Squad Designated 

Marksman — Position 

Evaluation) 
reproducible form, B- 1 
*7682-R (Combat Field 

Fire Scorecard) 
* example of completed 

form, B-6 (illus) 
^reproducible form, B-l 

destruction procedures (see also 
troubleshooting and 
destruction), 3-7 to 3-8 
degree of damage, 3-8 
methods of destruction, 3-8, 

3-8 (table) 
priorities of destruction, 3-8 

dominant eye training (see also 
preliminary marksmanship 
instruction), 4-24 

*downrange feedback, 5-1 to 5-38 
ballistics (see also ballistics), 

5-33 to 5-38 
^effects of wind and gravity 

(see also effects of wind and 

gravity), 5-26 to 5-32 
grouping procedures (see also 

grouping procedures), 5-1 to 

5-14, 5-1 (table) 

* known distance range (see 

also known distance range), 
5-19 to 5-26, 5-20 (table) 
zeroing procedures (see also 
zeroing procedures), 5-14 to 
5-19, 5-14 (table) 

*dry-fire training (see also squad 
designated marksman 
training), 7-66 to 7-67 
*borelight exercise, 7-66 

* dime/washer drill, 7-67 

* follow-through, 7-66 
^target box exercise, 7-67 
*zero confirmation, 7-67 



E 

* effects of wind and gravity (see 

also downrange feedback), 

5-26 to 5-32 
* gravity (see also gravity), 5-26 

to 5-27, 5-27 (illus) 
*wind (see also wind), 5-29 to 

5-32 

Engagement Skills Trainer 2000 

(see also preliminary 

marksmanship instruction and 

training aids, devices, and 

exercises), 4-29 to 4-30, A-l to 

A-4, A-l (illus) 
general characteristics, A-2 to A-3 
laser safety, A-4 
marksmanship training, A-2 

basic rifle marksmanship 
training, A-2 

individual and unit sustainment 
training, A-2 

remedial marksmanship training, 
A-2 
scenario editor, A-3 
shoot/don't shoot rules of 

engagement training, A-3 
tactical collective training, A-3 
weapon safety, A-4 



*field fire, 6-1 to 6-21, 6-1 (table) 
100 to 500 meters (see also 

squad designated marksman 
training), 7-73 to 7-74 
* certification, 7-74 
^conduct, 7-73 to 7-74, 7-73 
(table) 
alternate qualification courses 
(see also alternate qualification 
courses), 6-17 to 6-21 
field fire training (see also field 

fire training), 6-7 to 6-10 
record qualification (see also 
record qualification), 6-11 to 
6-17 
target detection (see also target 
detection), 6-1 to 6-6 

field fire training (see also 
field fire), 6-7 to 6-10 
conduct of a field fire range, 
6-7 to 6-8 
organization, 6-7 
peer coaching, 6-7 
recording, 6-8 



automated, 6-8 

manual, 6-8 
remedial training, 6-7 
Field Fire I (single timed 

target), 6-8 to 6-9 
concept, 6-8 
conduct, 6-8 to 6-9, 6-9 

(table) 
Field Fire II (multiple or 

single timed targets), 

6-9 to 6-10 
concept, 6-9 
conduct, 6-10, 6-10 (table) 

firing positions 
advanced (see also advanced 
rifle marksmanship), 
7-1 to 7-8 
kneeling supported firing 
position, 7-2, 7-2 (illus) 
modified firing positions, 

7-5, 7-5 (illus) 
standing supported firing 
position 
around obstacles, 7-4, 
7-4 (illus) 
standing unsupported firing 
position, 7-3, 7-3 (illus) 
urban operations firing 
positions, 7-6 to 7-8 
firing around obstacles, 

7-7, 7-7 (illus) 
firing from windows, 

7-8, 7-8 (illus) 
firing over rooftops, 
7-6, 7-6 (illus) 
basic (see also preliminary 
marksmanship 
instruction), 4-24 to 4-28 
individual foxhole 
supported firing 
position, 4-25, 4-25 (illus) 
kneeling unsupported 
firing position, 4-28, 
4-28 (illus) 
prone supported firing 

position, 4-27, 4-27 (illus) 
prone unsupported firing 
position, 4-25 to 4-26, 
4-26 (illus) 
interceptor body armor 
adjustments to firing 
positions (see also 
interceptor body armor), 
4-16 



lndex-4 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Index 



fundamentals 
of marksmanship (see also 
preliminary marksmanship 
instruction), 4-16 to 4-24 
aiming, 4-19 to 4-21, 4-19 

(illus), 4-20 (illus), 4-21 (illus) 
breath control, 4-21 to 4-22, 

4-22 (illus) 
steady position, 4- 1 6 to 

4-19, 4-17 (illus) 
trigger squeeze, 4-22 to 4-24 
of short-range marksmanship 
(see also short-range 
marksmanship training), 
7-42 to 7-47 
aiming techniques, 7-45 
aimed quick kill, 7-45 
instinctive fire, 7-45 
rapid aimed fire, 7-45 
slow aimed fire, 7-45 
firing stance, 7-42 to 7-43 
movement techniques, 7-44 

to 7-45 
point of aim, 7-45 to 7-46 
incapacitating shot placement, 

7-46, 7-46 (illus) 
lethal shot placement, 
7-46, 7-46 (illus) 
trigger manipulation, 7-47 
automatic fire, 7-47 
controlled pair, 7-47 
failure drill, 7-47 
weapon ready positions, 
7.43 to 7-44 
high ready position, 7-43, 

7-43 (illus) 
low ready position, 7-44, 
7-44 (illus) 



* gravity (see also effects of wind 

and gravity), 5-26 to 5-27 

* adjusted point of aim based 

on gravity, 5-26 to 5-27, 

5-27 (illus) 

grouping procedures (see also 
downrange feedback), 5-1 to 
5-14, 5-1 (table) 

concept, 5-2 

conduct of a 25-meter grouping 
firing, 5-2 to 5-3 

multiple shot group analysis 
(see also multiple shot group 
analysis), 5-7 to 5-13, 5-8 
(illus) 



organization of a 25-meter 

grouping range, 5-2, 5-2 (illus) 
shot group marking, 5-3 to 5-4, 

5-4 (illus) 
single shot group analysis (see 

also single shot group 

analysis), 5-4 to 5-7 
troubleshooting the fundamentals, 

5-14, 5-14 (table) 

H 

heavy thermal weapon sight (see 
also accessories, M4-series carbine, 
M16-series rifle, and advanced 
optics, lasers, and iron sights) 
AN/PAS- 13B (V3), 2-26 to 2-27, 
2-26 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-8 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-27,2-27 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A3, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-26 to 2-27, 
2-26 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-20 to 8-23, 8-20 (table) 
25-meter zeroing procedures, 

8-21 to 8-22, 8-22 (illus) 
concept, 8-20, 
conduct of training, 8-20 
modified fundamentals, 8-21 
practice qualification, 8-23 
record qualification, 8-23 
target detection, 8-22 to 8-23 
AN/PAS-13C(V3),2-26to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-8 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16 A3, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-26 to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
training strategies and 
qualification 
standards, 8-20 to 
8-23, 8-20 (table) 



2 5 -meter zeroing 
procedures, 8-21 to 
8-22, 8-22 (illus) 
concept, 8-20, 
conduct of training, 8-20 
modified fundamentals, 8-21 
practice qualification, 8-23 
record qualification, 8-23 
target detection, 8-22 to 
8-23 
AN/PAS-13D(V3),2-26to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-8 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
Ml 6 A3, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-26 to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
training strategies and 
qualification standards, 
8-20 to 8-23, 8-20 (table) 
2 5 -meter zeroing 
procedures, 8-21 to 
8-22, 8-22 (illus) 
concept, 8-20 
conduct of training, 8-20 
modified fundamentals, 

8-21 
practice qualification, 8-23 
record qualification, 8-23 
target detection, 8-22 to 
8-23 

*hold-off 
* 100 to 500 meters (see also 
squad designated 
marksman training), 
7-70 to 7-73 
^elevation, 7-71, 7-71 (illus) 
* windage, 7-72 to 7-73, 
7-72 (illus), 7-72 (table), 
7-73 (table) 

I 

infrared aiming light (see also 
accessories, M4-series 
carbine, M16-series rifle, 
and advanced optics, 
lasers, and iron sights) 
AN/PAQ-4B, 2-19 to 2-21, 
2-19 (illus) 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



lndex-5 



Index 



boresighting, 8-8 to 8-9 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 {table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M16A3, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-20, 2-20 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M4 MWS, 2-20, 2-20 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-23 to 8-28, 8-24 {table) 
25-meter zeroing procedures, 
8-25 to 8-27, 8-26 (illus) 
concept, 8-24 
conduct of training, 8-24 
field fire, 8-27 
modified fundamentals, 

8-24 to 8-25 
practice qualification, 

8-28 
record qualification, 8-28 
target detection, 8-27 
AN/PAQ-4C, 2-19 to 2-21, 
2-19 (illus) 
boresighting, , 8-8 to 8-9 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 {table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M16A3, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-20, 2-20 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
M4 MWS, 2-20, 2-20 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-23 to 8-28, 8-24 {table) 
25-meter zeroing procedures, 
8-25 to 8-27, 8-26 (illus) 
concept, 8-24 
conduct of training, 8-24 
field fire, 8-27 
modified fundamentals, 

8-24 to 8-25 
practice qualification, 8-28 
record qualification, 8-28 
target detection, 8-27 

initial entry training {see also 
marksmanship training strategy 
and training), 1-2, 1-2 (illus) 



interceptor body armor {see also 
preliminary marksmanship 
instruction), 4-15 to 4-16, 
4-15 (illus) 
adjustments to firing positions 

{see also firing positions), 4-16 
proper wear and fit, 4-15 
wear of helmets with interceptor 
body armor, 4-16 

K 

*known distance range {see also 
downrange feedback), 5-19 to 
5-26, 5-20 {table) 
25-meter zero standard, 5-27, 

5-27 (illus) 
^concept, 5-19 to 5-20 
^conduct of a standard known 
distance range, 5-23 to 5-24, 
5-25 (illus) 
*75-meter targets, 5-24 
* 175-meter targets, 5-24 
* 3 00-meter targets, 5-24 

* known distance record fire 

range, 5-24 
known distance shot grouping 

analysis, 5-22, 5-22 (illus) 
known distance target 

description, 5-20 to 5-21, 5-21 

(illus) 

* known distance zeroing, 5-23 
marking known distance range 

targets, 5-21, 5-21 (illus) 
^modified field fire range, 5-24 
^record of performance, 5-25 



Laser Marksmanship Training 
System {see also preliminary 
marksmanship instruction 
and training aids, devices, and 
exercises), 4-30, A-5 to A-12 
equipment, A-5, A-5 {table), 

A-6 {table) 
exercises, A-8 to A-12 
grouping and zeroing 
exercise, A- 1 to A- 1 1 , 
A- 10 {table), A-l 1 (illus) 
interactive dry-fire 
exercise, A-9 to A- 10, 
A-9 {table), A- 10 (illus) 



laser marksmanship 

training strategy 

prequalification exercise, 

A-l 1 to A-12, A-l 1 

{table), A-12 (illus) 
reflective target exercise, 

A-8 to A-9, A-8 {table), 

A-8 (illus) 
marksmanship training, A-6 to 

A-7 
remedial training, A-7 
sustainment training, A-7 
sound and recoil replicator, 
A-12 

light thermal weapon sight {see 
also accessories, M4-series 
carbine, M16-series rifle, 
and advanced optics, 
lasers, and iron sights) 
AN/PAS-13B(Vl),2-26to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-8 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-\6 {table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
Ml 6 A3, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-26 to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-20 to 8-23, 8-20 {table) 
25 -meter zeroing 

procedures, 8-21 to 
8-22, 8-22 (illus) 
concept, 8-20 
conduct of training, 8-20 
modified fundamentals, 

8-21 
practice qualification, 8-23 
record qualification, 8-23 
target detection, 8-22 to 
8-23 
AN/PAS-13C(Vl),2-26to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-8 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 {table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 



lndex-6 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Index 



M16A3, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 

8-20 to 8-23, 8-20 {table) 
2 5 -meter zeroing 

procedures, 8-21 to 

8-22, 8-22 (illus) 
concept, 8-20, 
conduct of training, 8-20 
modified fundamentals, 8-21 
practice qualification, 8-23 
record qualification, 8-23 
target detection, 8-22 to 8-23 
AN/PAS- 1 3D (VI), 2-26 to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-8 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-\6 (table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A3, 2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-26 to 2-27, 

2-26 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 

8-20 to 8-23, 8-20 (table) 
25-meter zeroing procedures, 

8-21 to 8-22, 8-22 (illus) 
concept, 8-20, 
conduct of training, 8-20 
modified fundamentals, 

8-21 
practice qualification, 8-23 
record qualification, 8-23 
target detection, 8-22 to 

8-23 

M 

M16A1 rifle (see also Mi- 
series rifle), 2-9 (illus) 

battlesight zeroing, 2-10, 
2-10 (illus) 
point of impact, 2-10 (table) 

characteristics, 2-1,2-1 (table) 

mechanically zeroing, 2-9 to 
2-10, 2-9 (illus) 

mounting accessories (see also 
accessories) 
advanced combat optical 



gunsight (see also advanced 
combat optical gunsight), 
2-32 to 2-33, 2-32 (illus), 
2-33 (illus) 
AN/PVS-4 night vision sight 
(see also AN/PVS-4 night 
vision sight), 2-29, 2-29 
(illus) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
heavy thermal weapon sight 

(see also heavy weapon 

thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(V3),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(V3),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS- 1 3D (V3), 2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
infrared aiming light (see also 
infrared aiming light) 
AN/PAQ-4B, 2-21, 2-21 

(illus) 
AN/PAQ-4C, 2-21, 2-21 

(illus) 
light thermal weapon sight 

(see also light weapon 

thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(Vl),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(Vl),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13D(V1), 2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
M68 close combat optic (see 
also M68 close combat 
optic), 2-18, 2-18 (illus) 
target pointer/illuminator/ 

aiming light (see also 

target pointer/ 

illuminator/aiming 

light) 
AN/PEQ-2A, 2-23, 2-23 

(illus) 
AN/PEQ-2B, 2-23, 2-23 

(illus) 

M16A2 rifle (see also M16-series 
rifle), 2-5 to 2-33, 2-5 (illus) 
battlesight zeroing, 2-6 to 
2-7, 2-6 (illus) 
point of impact, 2-7 (table) 
characteristics, 2-1,2-1 (table) 
mechanically zeroing, 2-6, 
2-6 (illus) 



mounting accessories (see 
also accessories) 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight (see also 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight), 2-32 to 2-33, 
2-32 (illus), 2-33 (illus) 
AN/PVS-4 night vision 
sight (see also AN/PVS-4 
night vision sight), 2-29, 
2-29 (illus) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
heavy thermal weapon 

sight (see also heavy 

weapon thermal sight) 
AN/PAS- 13B (V3), 

2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS- 13C(V3), 

2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS- 1 3D (V3), 

2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
infrared aiming light (see 

also infrared aiming 

light) 
AN/PAQ-4B, 2-21, 2-21 

(illus) 
AN/PAQ-4C, 2-21, 2-21 

(illus) 
light thermal weapon sight 

(see also light weapon 

thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(V1), 

2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(V1), 

2-27, 2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13D(V1), 

2-27, 2-27 (illus) 

M68 close combat optic 

(see also M68 close 

combat optic), 2-18, 

2-18 (illus) 

target pointer/illuminator/ 

aiming light (see also 

target pointer/ 

illuminator/aiming 

light) 
AN/PEQ-2A,2-23,2-23 (illus) 
AN/PEQ-2B, 2-23, 2-23 

(illus) 

Ml 6 A3 rifle (see also 

M16-series rifle), 2-5 to 
2-33, 2-5 (illus) 
battlesight zeroing, 2-6 to 
2-7, 2-6 (illus) 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



lndex-7 



Index 



point of impact, 2-7 {table) 
characteristics, 2-1,2-1 {table) 
mechanically zeroing, 2-6, 2-6 

(illus) 
mounting accessories {see also 
accessories) 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight {see also 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight), 2-32 to 2-33, 
2-32 (illus), 2-33 (illus) 
AN/PVS-4 night vision sight 
{see also AN/PVS-4 night 
vision sight), 2-29, 2-29 
(illus) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 {table) 
heavy thermal weapon sight 
{see also heavy weapon 
thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(V3),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(V3),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS- 1 3D (V3), 2-27, 
2-27 (illus) 
infrared aiming light {see 
also infrared aiming light) 
AN/PAQ4B, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
AN/PAQ4C, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
light thermal weapon sight 
{see also light weapon 
thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(Vl),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(Vl),2-27, 

2-27 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13D(V1), 2-27, 
2-27 (illus) 
M68 close combat optic {see 
also M68 close combat 
optic), 2-18, 2-18 (illus) 
target pointer/illuminator/ 
aiming light {see also 
target pointer/illuminator/ 
aiming light) 
AN/PEQ-2A, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
AN/PEQ-2B, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 

M16A4 rifle {see also Mi- 
series rifle), 2-7 (illus) 
battlesight zeroing, 2-8 to 2-9, 
2-8 (illus) 
point of impact, 2-9 {table) 
characteristics, 2-1,2-1 {table) 



mechanically zeroing, 2-8, 2-8 (illus) 
mounting accessories (see also 
accessories) 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight (see also advanced 
combat optical gunsight), 
2-31 to 2-32, 2-31 (illus) 
AN/PEQ-15 advanced target 
pointer/illuminator/aiming 
light (see also AN/PEQ-15 
advanced target pointer/ 
illuminator/aiming light), 
2-25,2-25 (illus) 
AN/PVS-4 night vision sight 
(see also AN/PVS-4 night 
vision sight), 2-28 to 2-29, 
2-28 (illus) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
heavy thermal weapon sight 
(see also heavy weapon 
thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(V3),2-26to 

2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(V3),2-26to 

2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13D(V3),2-26to 
2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
infrared aiming light (see also 
infrared aiming light) 
AN/PAQ-4B, 2-20, 2-20 (illus) 
AN/PAQ-4C, 2-20, 2-20 (illus) 
light thermal weapon sight 
(see also light weapon 
thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(Vl),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(Vl),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13D (VI), 2-26 
to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
M68 close combat optic (see 
also M68 close combat 
optic), 2-17, 2-17 (illus), 
2-18 to 2-19, 2-19 (illus) 
target pointer/illuminator/ 
aiming light (see also 
target pointer/illuminator/ 
aiming light) 
AN/PEQ-2A, 2-22 to 

2-23, 2-22 (illus) 

AN/PEQ-2B, 2-22 to 

2-23, 2-22 (illus) 



M16-series rifle (see also 

weapon characteristics, 

accessories, and 

ammunition), 2-5 to 2-10 
M16A1 (see also M16AI 

rifle), 2-9 (illus) 
M16A2 (see also M16A2 

rifle), 2-5 to 2-33, 2-5 (illus) 
Ml 6 A3 (see also M16A3 

rifle), 2-5 (illus) 
M16A4 (see also M16A4 

rifle), 2-7 (illus) 

M4 carbine (see also M4- 

series carbine), 2-2 (illus), 
2-3 (illus) 
characteristics, 2-1,2-1 (table) 
battlesight zeroing, 2-4 to 
2-5, 2-4 (illus) 
point of impact, 2-5 
(table) 
mechanically zeroing, 2-4, 

2-4 (illus) 
mounting accessories (see 
also accessories) 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight (see also 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight), 2-31 to 2-32, 
2-31 (illus) 
AN/PVS-4 night vision 
sight (see also AN/PVS-4 
night vision sight), 2-28 
to 2-29, 2-28 (illus) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
heavy thermal weapon 
sight (see also heavy 
weapon thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(V3),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(V3),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 

AN/PAS-13D(V3),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 

infrared aiming light (see 

also infrared aiming 

light) 

AN/PAQ-4B, 2-21, 2-21 

(illus) 
AN/PAQ-4C, 2-21, 2-21 
(illus) 
light thermal weapon sight 
(see also light weapon 
thermal sight) 



lndex-8 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Index 



AN/PAS-13B(Vl),2-26 
to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 

AN/PAS-13C(Vl),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13D(V1), 2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 

M68 close combat optic {see 

also M68 close combat 

optic), 2-17, 2-17 (illus) 

target pointer/illuminator/ 

aiming light {see also 

target pointer/ 

illuminator/aiming 

light) 
AN/PEQ-2A, 2-23, 2-23 

(illus) 
AN/PEQ-2B, 2-23, 2-23 

(illus) 

M4A1 carbine {see also 

M4- series carbine), 2-2 
(illus), 
2-3 (illus) 
battlesight zeroing, 2-4 to 2-5, 
2-4 (illus) 
point of impact, 2-5 {table) 
characteristics, 2-1,2-1 {table) 
mechanically zeroing, 2-4, 2-4 

(illus) 
mounting accessories {see also 
accessories) 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight {see also 
advanced combat optical 
gunsight), 2-31 to 2-32, 
2-31 (illus) 
AN/PVS-4 night vision sight 
{see also AN/PVS-4 night 
vision sight), 2-28 to 2-29, 
2-28 (illus) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 {table) 
heavy thermal weapon sight 
{see also heavy weapon 
thermal sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(V3),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(V3),2-26 

to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS- 1 3D (V3), 2-26 
to 2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
infrared aiming light {see 
also infrared aiming 
light) 
AN/PAQ4B, 2-21, 2-21 (illus) 
AN/PAQ-4C, 2-21, 2-21 



(illus) 
light thermal weapon sight {see 

also light weapon thermal 

sight) 
AN/PAS-13B(Vl),2-26to 

2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS-13C(Vl),2-26to 

2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
AN/PAS- 1 3D (VI), 2-26 to 

2-27, 2-26 (illus) 
M68 close combat optic {see 
also M68 close combat 
optic), 2-17, 2-17 (illus) 
target pointer/illuminator/ 

aiming light {see also 

target pointer/illuminator/ 

aiming light) 
AN/PEQ-2A, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
AN/PEQ-2B, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 

M4A1 MWS {see also M4-series 
carbine), 2-3 (illus) 
characteristics, 2-1,2-1 {table) 

M4/M5 adapter rail system {see 
also accessory mounting), 2-10 
to 2-13, 2-3 (illus), 2-11 (illus) 
numbered recoil grooves, 2-12, 

2-12 (illus) 
rail covers, 2-1 1 to 2-12, 2-1 1 (illus) 
vertical pistol grip, 2-13, 2-13 (illus) 

M4 MWS {see also M4-series 
carbine), 2-3 (illus) 
battlesight zeroing, 2-4 to 2-5, 
2-4 (illus) 
point of impact, 2-5 {table) 
characteristics, 2-1,2-1 {table) 
mechanically zeroing, 2-4, 2-4 

(illus) 
mounting accessories {see also 
accessories) 
AN/PEQ-15 advanced target 
pointer/illuminator/aiming 
light {see also AN/PEQ-15 
advanced target pointer/ 
illuminator/aiming 
light), 2-25, 2-25 (illus) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 {table) 
infrared aiming light {see also 
infrared aiming light) 
AN/PAQ-4B, 2-20, 2-20 (illus) 
AN/PAQ-4C, 2-20, 2-20 
(illus) 



M68 close combat optic 
{see also M68 close 
combat optic), 2- 1 8 to 
2-19,2-19 (illus) 
target pointer/illuminator/ 

aiming light {see also 

target pointer/ 

illuminator/aiming 

light) 
AN/PEQ-2A, 2-22 to 

2-23, 2-22 (illus) 
AN/PEQ-2B, 2-22 to 

2-23, 2-22 (illus) 

M4-series carbine {see also 

weapon characteristics, 

accessories, and 

ammunition), 2-2 to 2-5, 

2-2 (illus) 
M4 {see also M4 carbine), 

2-2 (illus), 2-3 (illus) 
M4A1 {see also M4A1 

carbine), 2-2 (illus), 2-3 (illus) 
M4A1 MWS {see also M4A1 

MWS), 2-3 (illus) 
M4 MWS {see also M4 

MWS), 2-3 (illus) 

M68 close combat optic {see 
also accessories, M4- 
series carbine, M16-series 
rifle, and advanced optics, 
lasers, and iron sights), 
2-17 to 2-19, 2-17 (illus) 
boresighting using, 8-6 to 8-7 
characteristics, 2-16 {table) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 {table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-18, 2-18 (7//mj; 
M16A2, 2-18, 2-18 (///w.s; 
M16A3, 2-18, 2-18 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-18 to 2-19, 

2-19 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-17, 2-17 (illus) 
M4 MWS, 2-18 to 2-19, 

2-19 (illus) 
M4-series carbine, 2-17, 
2-17 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-12 to 8-16, 8-13 {table) 
25-meter zeroing procedures, 
8-14 to 8-15, 8-15 (illus) 
concept, 8-13 
conduct of training, 8-13 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



lndex-9 



Index 



modified fundamentals, 8-13 

to 8-14 
practice qualification, 8-16 
record qualification, 8-16 
target detection, 8-16 
zeroing without a borelight, 

8-14 

magazine changing drills {see 
also short-range marksmanship 
training), 7-48 to 7-51 

1-shaped method, 7-50 to 7-51, 
7-50 (illus), 7-51 (illus) 

parallel method, 7-48 to 7-49, 
7-49 (illus) 

malfunctions {see also 

troubleshooting and 

destruction), 3-2 to 3-7 
failure to eject, 3-6 
failure to extract, 3-5 
failure to feed, chamber, or 

lock, 3-2 to 3-3, 3-2 (illus) 
failure to fire cartridge, 3-3 to 

3-4 5 3-4 (illus) 
other malfunctions, 3-6 to 3-7, 

3-6 {table), 3-7 (illus) 

marking targets {see also field 
fire and target detection), 
6-4 to 6-5 

exposure time of target, 6-4 

good and poor points of aim, 
6-5 

number of targets, 6-4 

spacing of targets, 6-5 

marksmanship training strategy 

{see also training), 1-1 to 1-5 
initial entry training {see also 

initial entry training), 1-2, 

1-2 (illus) 
sustainment training {see also 

sustainment training), 1 -2 to 

1-5, 1-3 (illus) 

modes of fire {see also preliminary 
marksmanship instruction), 
4-11 to 4-12, 4-11 (illus) 
automatic mode of fire, 4-12, 

4-11 (illus) 
burst mode of fire, 4-12, 4-11 
(illus) 
semiautomatic mode of fire, 
4-11 to 4-12, 4-11 (illus) 



moving target engagements {see 
also advanced rifle marksmanship), 
7-36 to 7-41, 7-36 {table) 
modifications, 7-36 to 7-41 
marksmanship fundamentals, 
7-36 to 7-41, 7-37 {table), 
1-31 (illus), 7-38 (illus), 
7-39 (illus), 7-39 {table), 
7-40 {table) 
moving target live-fire exercise, 
7-41 

multiple shot group analysis {see 
also grouping procedures), 
5-7 to 5-13, 5-8 (illus) 
acceptable shot grouping 
performance, 5-8 to 5-9, 5-8 
(illus) 
improper shot groups on the 
edge of the target, 5-13, 5-13 
(illus) 
shot groups with 
consistent aiming and major 

shooting error, 5-10, 5-10 

(illus) 
inconsistent aiming, 5-9, 5-9 

(illus) 
inconsistent aiming and 

major shooting error, 5-11, 

5-11 (illus) 
improper vertical placement, 

5-12, 5-12 (illus) 

N 

night fighting, C-l to C-9 
aided night vision {see also 

aided night vision), C-4 to 

C-9 
unaided night vision {see also 

unaided night vision), C-l to 

C-3 

night fire training {see also 
advanced rifle 

marksmanship), 7-30 to 7-35 
artificial illumination training, 
7-35, 7-35 {table) 
effectiveness and control of 

artificial illumination, 7-35 
live-fire exercise, 7-35 
unassisted night fire training, 
7-30 to 7-34, 7-30 {table) 
modifications, 7-30 to 
7-33 
firing positions, 7-3 1 
immediate action, 7-3 1 



marksmanship 

fundamentals, 7-3 1 to 

7-32 
operation and maintenance 

of the weapon, 7-31 
target detection, 7-32 to 

7-33, 7-32 (illus), 

7-33 (illus) 
training, 7-34 
live-fire exercises, 7-34, 

7-34 (illus) 



peer coaching {see also 

preliminary marksmanship 

instruction), 4-12 to 4-14 
advantages and disadvantages, 

4-12 to 4-13 
benefits, 4-13 

checklist for the coach, 4-13 
duties, 4-13 
position of the coach, 4-13 

to 4-14, 4-14 (illus) 

^position {see also squad 
designated marksman 
training), 7-63 to 7-66 
* foxhole supported, 7-64 to 

7-65 
*prone unsupported, 7-65 
*zero confirmation, 7-66, 
7-66 {table) 

preliminary marksmanship 
instruction, 4-1 to 4-30 
Introduction to Basic Rifle 

Marksmanship and 

Mechanical Training, 

4_1 to 4-14 , 4-1 {table) 
clearing {see also 

clearing), 4-2 to 4-3, 4-3 

(illus) 
cycles of functioning {see 

also cycles of 

functioning), 4-4 to 4-10 
modes of fire {see also 

modes of fire), 4-11 to 

4-12,4-11 (illus) 
peer coaching {see also 

peer coaching), 4-12 to 

4-14 
Marksmanship Fundamentals 

I, 4_i4 to 4-30, 4-14 {table) 
basic firing positions {see 

also firing positions), 

4-24 to 4-28 



lndex-10 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Index 



dominant eye training (see 
also dominant eye 
training), 4-24 

four fundamentals (see also 
fundamentals), 4-16 to 
4-24 

interceptor body armor (see 
also interceptor body 
armor), 4-15 to 4-16, 4-15 
(illus) 

training devices and 

exercises (see also training 
aids, devices, and exercises), 
4-28 to 4-29 
Marksmanship Fundamentals 
II, 4-29, 4-29 (table) 

Engagement Skills Trainer 
2000 (see also training 
aids, devices, and exercises 
and Engagement Skills 
Trainer 2000), 4-29 to 4-30 

Laser Marksmanship 
Training System (see also 
training aids, devices, and 
exercises and Laser 
Marksmanship Training 
System), 4-30 



qualification training (see also 
unit marksmanship training 
program and training), 1-15 
to 1-18 

downrange feedback, 1-16 

feedback, 1-16 

field fire, 1-16 

grouping and zeroing, 1-16 

record fire, 1-17 

remedial training, 1-17, 1-17 
(table) 

quick fire (see also combat fire 
techniques), 7-19 to 7-24 
effectiveness and control, 7-19 
to 7-21 
aimed, 7-20, 7-20 (illus) 
pointed, 7-21, 7-21 (illus) 
factors for use, 7-22 
modifications, 7-22 to 7-23 
training, 7-23 to 7-24, 7-24 
(table) 



R 

rail grabbers (see also accessory 
mounting), 2-13 to 2-16 
Insight rail grabber, 2-14 to 
2-15, 2-14 (illus) 
MILES training extender for 
the insight rail grabber, 
2-14 to 2-15,2-15 (illus) 
Picatinny rail grabber, 2- 1 5 to 
2-16, 2-15 (illus) 

*range determination (see also field 
fire, target detection, and 
squad designated marksman 
training), 6-5 to 6-6 , 7-67 to 
7-70 

* 1 00-meter unit of measure 

method, 6-5 to 6-6, 7-68 
^appearance of objects method, 

6-6, 7-68 
^combination method, 7-69 
^elevation knob training, 7-69 to 
7-70 
^conduct, 7-69 to 7-70, 7-70 
(table) 

* factors affecting range 

estimation, 7-69 
*light conditions, 7-69 
*nature of the target, 7-69 
*nature of the terrain, 7-69 

* front sightpost method, 6-6, 

7-68 
*range card method, 7-68 

range operations checklist (see 
also range procedures and 
computer-controlled ranges), 
E-5toE-10 

range procedures (see also range 
operations checklist and 
computer-controlled ranges), E-l 
firing order lineup, E-2 
personnel and duties, E-2 to E-3 
tower commands (see also 
tower commands), E-2 to E-5 

range safety, D- 1 to D-3 
ammunition positioning and 

issuance, D-3 
personnel and duties, D-2 to D-3 
recommended briefing, D-l 

rapid semiautomatic fire (see 
also combat fire 
techniques), 7-8 to 7-12 
effectiveness and control, 7-9 



modifications, 7-9 to 7-10 
immediate action procedures, 

7-10 
marksmanship 
fundamentals, 7-9 to 
7-10 
training, 7-10 to 7-12, 7-11 
(table) 

record qualification (see also 
field fire), 6-11 to 6-17 
practice record fire I and II, 

6-11 to 6-13, 6-11 (table) 
alibi firing, 6-12 
concept, 6-11 
conduct, 6-11 to 6-12, 

6-12 (table) 
practice record fire 

standards, 6-13, 6-13 

(table) 
range training areas, 6-12 

orientation area, 6-12 

ready area, 6-12 

retired area, 6-12 
record of performance, 

6-13 
record fire, 6-13 to 6-17, 

6-13 (table) 
concept, 6-14 
conduct, 6-15 to 6-16, 
6-15 (table) 

alibi firing, 6-15 to 6-16 

refire, 6-16 

troubleshooting 
performance, 6-16 
development of standards, 
6-14, 6-14 (table) 

probability of hits, 6-14 
(table) 
qualification ratings, 6-16, 

6-16 (table) 
record of performance, 

6-17 
target function, 6-14 

reflexive fire training, (see also 
short-range marksmanship 
training), 7-51 to 7-53 

conduct, 7-52 to 7-53, 7-52 
(table), 7-53 (table) 

range setup, 7-52 

reflexive firing targets, 7-51, 
7-51 (illus) 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



lndex-11 



Index 



scanning for targets (see also 

field fire and target 

detection), 6-2 to 6-3 
50-meter overlapping strip 

method of search, 6-2 
maintaining observation of the 

area, 6-3 
self-preservation method of 

search, 6-2 
*scorecards, B-l to B-6 
* examples of completed 

scorecards, B-l to B-6 
^reproducible forms, B-l 

short-range marksmanship 

qualification (see also short- 
range marksmanship 
training), 7-55 to 7-57 
barricade transition qualification 
firing, 7-56 to 7-57 
conduct, 7-56 
evaluation, 7-56 to 7-57, 

7-57 (table) 
range setup, 7-56 
record and practice fire, 7-55 
to 7-56 
conduct, 7-55, 7-55 (table) 
evaluation, 7-56 

short-range marksmanship 

training (see also Advanced 
Rifle Marksmanship), 7-41 
to 7-57 

conduct of short-range 
marksmanship training, 7-41 
to 7-42, 7-42 (table) 

fundamentals of short-range 
marksmanship (see also 
fundamentals of short-range 
marksmanship), 7-42 to 7-47 

Phase I — Reflexive Fire 
Training (see also reflexive 
fire training), 7-51 to 7-53 

Phase II — Target Discrimination 
Training (see also target 
discrimination training), 
7-53 to 7-55 

Phase III — Short-Range 
Marksmanship Qualification 
(see also short-range 
marksmanship qualification), 
7-55 to 7-57 

Phase IV — Shotgun and 
Automatic or Burst Firing 
Familiarization (see also 



shotgun and automatic or 
burst firing familiarization), 
7-57 
Preliminary Short-Range 

Marksmanship Instruction, 

7-47 to 7-51, 7-48 (table) 
magazine changing drills (see 

also magazine changing 

drills), 7-48 to 7-51 

shotgun and automatic or burst 
firing familiarization (see also 
short-range marksmanship 
training), 7-57 

single shot group analysis (see also 

grouping procedures), 5-4 to 

5-7 
2-centimeter shot groups, 5-5, 

5-5 (illus) 
3- to 4-centimeter shot groups, 

5-6, 5-6 (illus) 
match-grade performance, 5-5, 

5-5 (illus) 
over 4- to 5 -centimeter shot 

groups, 5-6, 5-6 (illus) 
shot groups larger than 5 

centimeters, 5-7, 5-7 (illus) 

* squad designated marksman 
training, 7-62 to 7-74 
^mission, 7-62 

* selection, 7-63 

* skills progression, 7-63 to 7-74 

* certification, 7-74 

* conduct, 7-63 

* Phase I — Position Evaluation 

(see also position), 7-63 to 7-66 

*Phase II — Dry-Fire Training 
(see also dry- fire training), 
7-66 to 7-67 

*Phase III — Range Estimation 
and Sight Manipulation 1 00 
to 500 Meters (see also 
range determination), 7-67 
to 7-70 

*Phase IV— Hold-Off 100 
to 500 Meters (see also 
hold-off), 7-70 to 7-73 

*Phase V— Field Fire 100 
to 500 Meters (see also 
field fire), 7-73 to 7-74 

* qualification, 7-63 

stoppages (see also 

troubleshooting and 
destruction), 3-1 to 3-2 



immediate action, 3-1 
remedial action, 3-1 to 3-2 

suppressive fire (see also 

combat fire techniques), 

7-16 to 7-19 
effectiveness and control, 

7-16 
modifications, 7-16 to 7-17 
training, 7-17 to 7-19, 7-18 

(table), 7 -18 (illus), 7 -19 

(table) 

sustainment training (see also 
marksmanship training 
strategy and training), 1-2 
to 1-5, 1-3 (illus) 

Active Army home station 
marksmanship training 
strategy, 1-4 (illus) 

Army Reserve home station 
marksmanship training 
strategy, 1-5 (illus) 

deployed unit marksmanship 
training strategy, 1-5 (illus) 

National Guard home station 
marksmanship training 
strategy, 1-4 (illus) 



target detection (see also Field 

Fire), 6-1 to 6-6 
locating targets, 6-1 to 6-4 
marking targets (see also 

marking targets), 6-4 to 6-5 
range determination (see 

also range determination), 

6-5 to 6-6 
scanning (see also scanning 

for targets), 6-2 to 6-3 
selection of a position, 6-2 
target indicators (see also 

target indicators), 6-3 to 6-4 

target discrimination training 
(see also short-range 
marksmanship training), 
7-53 to 7-55 

conduct, 7-54 

evaluation, 7-55 

range setup, 7-54 

target discrimination targets, 
7-53 to 7-54 

target indicators (see also field 
fire and target detection), 
6-3 to 6-4 



lndex-12 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 



Index 



improper camouflage, 6-3 to 

6-4 
movement, 6-3 
sound, 6-3 

target pointer/illuminator/aiming 
light (see also accessories, 
M4-series carbine, Mi- 
series rifle, and advanced 
optics, lasers, and iron sights) 
AN/PEQ-2A, 2-2 1 to 2-24, 
2-22 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-9 to 8-10 
characteristics, 2-16 (table) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
M16 A3, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-22 to 2-23, 

2-22 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
M4 MWS, 2-22 to 2-23, 
2-22 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 
8-23 to 8-28, 8-24 (table) 
2 5 -meter zeroing 
procedures, 8-25 to 
8-27, 8-26 (illus) 
concept, 8-24 
conduct of training, 8-24 
field fire, 8-27 
modified fundamentals, 

8-24 to 8-25 
practice qualification, 

8-28 
record qualification, 8-28 
target detection, 8-27 
use in conjunction with 
MILES, 2-24, 2-24 (illus) 
AN/PEQ-2B, 2-21 to 2-24, 
2-22 (illus) 
boresighting, 8-9 to 8-10 
characteristics, 2-16 (table) 
compatibility and mounting, 

2-16 (table) 
mounting on 
M16A1, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
M16A2, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
M16A3, 2-23, 2-23 (illus) 
M16A4, 2-22 to 2-23, 

2-22 (illus) 
M4 carbine, 2-23, 2-23 
(illus) 



M4 MWS, 2-22 to 2-23, 

2-22 (illus) 
training strategies and 

qualification standards, 

8-23 to 8-28, 8-24 (table) 
25-meter zeroing procedures, 

8-25 to 8-27, 8-26 (illus) 
concept, 8-24 
conduct of training, 8-24 
field fire, 8-27 
modified fundamentals, 

8-24 to 8-25 
practice qualification, 8-28 
record qualification, 8-28 
target detection, 8-27 
use in conjunction with 
MILES, 2-24, 2-24 (illus) 

thermal weapon sight (see also 
night fighting and aided night 
vision), C-6 to C-9 

absorption, C-7 

adjustments, C-7 to C-9 
brightness knob, C-8 
contrast switch, C-8 to C-9 
diopter focus ring, C-8 
fields of view, C-8 
objective focus ring, C-8 
polarity switch, C-9 

diurnal cycle, C-7 

emissivity, C-7 

exposure, C-7 

reflection, C-7 

tower commands (see also range 
procedures), E-2 to E-5 
field firing exercises, E-3 to E-4 
general commands, E-3 
grouping commands, E-3 
practice record fire, E-4 
rapid fire exercises, E-4 to E-5 
record fire, E-4 
zero commands, E-3 to E-4 

trainers (see also unit 

marksmanship training 
program and training), 
1-12 to 1-14 
cadre/trainer, 1-12 to 1-13 
duties of the instructor/ 
trainer, 1-13 to 1-14 
instructor/trainer selection, 1-12 
trainer certification program, 
1-14 to 1-15 
certification program outline, 

1-14 to 1-15 
training base, 1-15 



training the trainer, 1-13 

training, 1-1 to 1-18 
training strategy, 1-1 to 1-8 
marksmanship training 
strategy (see also 
marksmanship training 
strategy), 1-1 to 1-5 
objectives, 1-1 
training phases (see also 
training phases), 1-6 to 
1-8 
unit marksmanship training 
program (see also unit 
marksmanship program), 
1-9 to 1-18 

training aids, devices, and 

exercises (see also preliminary 
marksmanship instruction), 
A-l to A-28, 4-28 to 4-29 
Engagement Skills Trainer 
2000 (see also preliminary 
marksmanship instruction 
and Engagement Skills 
Trainer 2000), A-l to A-4, 
A-l (illus) 
Laser Marksmanship Training 
System (see also preliminary 
marksmanship instruction 
and Laser Marksmanship 
Training System), A- 5 to 
A-12 
other training devices and 

exercises, A-12 to A-28 
selection of training aids 

and devices, A- 13, A- 13 

(illus) 
target ordering numbers, 

A- 14, A- 14 (table) 
training devices (see also 

training devices), A-14 to 

A-24 
training exercises (see 

also training exercises), 

A-24 to A-28 
training support centers, 

A-13 

training assessment (see also 
unit marksmanship training 
program and training), 1-9 
to 1-12 
commander's evaluation 
guide, 1-10 to 1-12 
commander's priorities 
and intent, 1-10 



10 February 2011 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



lndex-13 



Index 



Soldier assessment, 1-10 to 
1-11 

trainer assessment, 1-12 
direct observation of training, 

1-9 
review of past training, 1-10 
spot checks, 1-9 

training devices (see also 

training aids, devices, and 

exercises), A- 14 to A-24 
aiming card, A- 15, A- 15 (illus) 
location of miss-and-hit 

system, A- 18 to A- 19 
M15A1 aiming card, 4-28 
M15A2/M23 blank firing 

attachment, A- 18, A- 18 (illus) 
Ml 6 sighting device, A- 17, 

A- 17 (illus) 
M261 .22-caliber rimfire 

adapter, A- 19 to A-20 
riddle sighting device, A- 16, 

A- 16 (illus) 
short-range training 

ammunition, A-20 
weaponeer, A-20 to A-24, 

A-21 (illus), A-22 (illus), 

A-23 (illus) 

training exercises (see also 
training aids, devices, and 

exercises), A-24 to 

A-28 
ball and dummy exercise, A-27 
dime/washer exercise, A-27 to 

A-28, 4-29 
target box exercise, A-24 to 

A-27, A-24 (illus), A-25 

(illus), A-26 (illus), A-21 

(illus) , 4-29 

training phases (see also 

training), 1-6 to 1-8 
Phase I — Basic Rifle 

Marksmanship Preliminary 

Marksmanship Instruction, 

1-6 to 1-7 
Phase II — Basic Rifle 

Marksmanship Downrange 

Feedback Range Firing, 1 -7 
Phase III— Basic Rifle 

Marksmanship Field Firing, 

1-8 
Phase IV — Advanced Rifle 

Marksmanship, 1-8 
Phase V — Advanced Optics, 

Lasers, and Iron Sights, 1-8 



troubleshooting and destruction, 

3-1 to 3-8 
destruction procedures (see also 

destruction procedures), 3-7 to 

3-8 
malfunctions (see also 

malfunctions), 3-2 to 3-7 
stoppages (see also stoppages), 

3-1 to 3-2 

U 

unaided night vision (see also 

night fighting), C-l to C-3 
avoiding night blind spots, C-2 
dark adaptation, C-2 to C-3 

daylight vision, C-2 

night vision, C-3 

twilight vision, C-2 
illusion, C-3 
night blind spots and viewing 

techniques, C-l to C-2 
normal blind spots, C- 1 
protecting 

before operation, C-3 

during operation, C-3 

unit marksmanship training 

program (see also training), 

1-9 to 1-18 
mission-essential tasks, 1-9 
qualification training (see also 

qualification training), 1-15 to 

1-18 
trainers (see also trainers), 1-12 

to 1-14 
training assessment (see also 

training assessment), 1-9 to 

1-12 
unit live-fire exercises, 1-18 

W 

weapon characteristics, 
accessories, and 
ammunition, 2-1 to 2-39 
1 0-meter boresight and 
25- meter zero offset (see also 
1 0-meter boresight and 
25-meter zero offset), 2-33 
to 2-34 
accessories (see also 
accessories), 2-16 to 
2-39 
characteristics, 2-16 (table) 
compatibility and 
mounting, 2-16 
(table) 



mounting (see also 
accessory mounting), 
2-10 to 2-16 
ammunition (see also 

ammunition), 2-35 to 2-39 
rifles and carbines, 2-1 to 2-10 
M16-series rifle (see also 
M16-series rifle), 2-5 to 
2-10 
M4-series carbine (see 
also M4-series carbine), 
2-2 to 2-5, 2-2 (illus) 

♦wind (see also effects of wind 
and gravity), 5-26 to 5-32 

* adjusted point of aim based 

on gravity and wind 
speed, 5-32, 5-32 (illus) 

* adjusted point of aim based 

on wind speed, 5-31, 5-31 
(illus), 5-31 (table) 

* drift for a 10 mile-per-hour 

wind using 5.56- 
millimeter M855 
ammunition, 5-32, 5-32 
(table) 

♦wind direction, 5-27, 5-28 
(illus) 

♦wind speed, 5-28 to 5-30 
♦flag method, 5-29, 5-29 

(illus) 
♦observation method, 5-30 
♦pointing method, 5-30, 
5-30 (illus) 



zeroing procedures (see also 
downrange feedback and 
25-meter zero offsets), 
5_14 to 5-19, 5-14 (table) 
conduct of a 25-meter zero 
firing, 5-15 to 5-19, 
5-16 (illus), 5-17 (illus), 
5-18 (illus) 
conduct of a 25-meter zero 
firing using the 
Location of Misses-and- 
Hits System, 5-19 
♦conduct of a 200-meter 
zero firing, 5-19 
organization of a 25-meter 

zero range, 5-15 
purpose, 5-15 
sight variance, 5-15 



lndex-14 



FM 3-22.9, C1 



10 February 2011 









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COMBAT FIELD FIRE SCORECARD 

For use of this form, see FM 3-22.9; the proponent agency is TRADOC. 


NAME 


RANK 


UNIT 


EVALUATOR'S NAME 


RANK 


DATE ( 


YYYYMMDD) 


TABLE 1 
KNEELING UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


TOTAL NUMBER 
OF HITS 


RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 




50 (Left) 


2 


31 






n l 


50 (Right) 


2 


31 








-J 


100 


1 


45 








H 


150 


2 


60 






TABLE 2 - SET 1 
BARRICADE SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 




RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 


50 (Left or Right) 


3 


26 










in 


100 


2 


40 




nl 


TABLE 2 - SET 2 
BARRICADE SUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 




HITS 

a 


100 


1 


19 






150 


2 


21 






200 


1 


40 








TABLE 3 - SET 1 
PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 




RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 


100 


2 


23 


r 


n l 


200 


2 


36 




HH 


250 


1 


50 


r 






TABLE 3 - SET 2 
PRONE UNSUPPORTED FIRING POSITION 


RANGE (METERS) 


HITS REQUIRED 


EXPOSURE TIME (SECONDS) 


HITS 


150 


2 


21 


r 


n l 


250 


2 


37 




I 


300 


1 


50 


□ 




AIMING DEVICE USED (Check One) 


RATINGS 


TOTAL NUMBER 
OF HITS FOR 
ALL TABLES 


1 IRON SIGHT 

1 BACKUP IRON SIGHT 

~| M68, CCO 

~| ACOG 


1 AN/PAS-13(DAY) 
1 AN/PAS-13(NIGHT) 
~| AN/PAQ-4B/C 
"1 AN/PEQ-2A/B 


~1 Trained - 24 to 26 hits 
~| Partially Trained - 1 6 to 23 
Untrained - 1 5 or fewer hits 




REMARKS 




EVALUATOR'S INITIALS 


DATE INITIALED 


OFFICER'S INITIALS 


DATE INITIALED 



DA FORM 7682-R, JAN 2011 



APDPEvLOOES 



CONDUCT OF A COMBAT FIELD FIRE RANGE 


CONDUCT 


Table 1 - Kneeling Unsupported Firing Position. 




Soldiers begin combat field fire in a kneeling unsupported position 
next to a barricade. On a signal, four targets expose simultaneously. 


NOTE: When firing combat field fire, each Soldier must wear the 


proper uniform: the helmet, LBE, and IBA with all SAPI plates (if 


Soldiers fire at each target until it falls and stays down. After 60 


available). No other armor is required. 


seconds have elapsed, the last target will fall and stay down. 




Without prompting, Soldiers transition to the barricade supported 
position. 


Each firer receives 30 rounds of 5.56-millimeter ball ammunition (3 


magazines containing 10 rounds) and 1 randomly placed dummy 




round in each magazine. The Soldier assumes a firing position and 


Table 2 - Barricade Supported Firing Position. 


engages each target until it falls and stays down. Once a Soldier 


To assume a barricade supported position, Soldiers stand behind 


has completed a table, he transitions to the next position without 


the lower portion of the barricade. When in this position, Soldiers 


prompting, and once he has emptied a magazine, he should change 


are exposed to two sets of targets: 


magazines without prompting. Each Soldier must attain a minimum 




of 16 hits to be considered trained. 


• In the first set, two targets expose simultaneously. 




After 40 seconds have elapsed, the last target will 
fall and stay down. 




NOTES: 1- Targets will bob between hits. 






• In the second set, three targets will expose 




simultaneously. After 40 seconds have elapsed, the 


2. Ten to twenty seconds should elapse between 


last target will fall and stay down. 


firing tables to allow Soldiers to transition to the 


Soldiers engage at each target until it falls and stays down. Without 


next firing position or to prompt Soldiers to watch 


prompting, Soldiers transition to the prone unsupported position. 


the area for additional targets. 




3. A Soldier should not stop firing unless he has 


Table 3 - Prone Unsupported Firing Position. 


completed the firing table and is transitioning to 


To assume a prone unsupported position, the Soldier positions 


the next position (making a brief halt in fire 


himself so that he fires around the edge of the barricade, using it for 


necessary), has completed all firing tables, or is 


cover. When in this position, Soldiers engage two sets of targets: 


out of ammunition. 






• In the first set, three targets expose simultaneously. 


4. The dummy round placed in each magazine (1 


After 50 seconds have elapsed, the last target will 


round for each magazine) simulates a 


fall and stay down. 


malfunction. To properly simulate a malfunction, 


• In the second set, three targets will expose 


the dummy round must be randomly placed; it 


simultaneously. After 50 seconds have elapsed, the 


cannot be the first or last round in the magazine. 


last target will fall and stay down. 


Soldiers should address this malfunction (by 


Soldiers fire at each target until it falls and stays down. Upon 


performing SPORTS) without prompting. 


completion of the firing table, Soldiers should stay in position, clear 




their weapons, and follow the orders given by the tower operator. 






SCORING 




Accurate performance data are critical. Based on the data recorded, 




an AAR can be performed by range and firing position to discuss 




firing performance. 




RATINGS 




Trained - 24 to 26 hits. The Soldier is trained and has 




demonstrated proficiency in accomplishing the task to wartime 




standards. 




Partially Trained - 1 6 to 23 hits. The Soldier needs to practice the 




task. Performance has demonstrated that the Soldier does not 




achieve standard without some difficulty or has failed to perform 




some task steps to standard. 




Untrained - 15 or fewer hits. The Soldier does not demonstrate 




an ability to achieve wartime proficiency. 



REVERSE, DA FORM 7682-R, JAN 2011 



APDPEvlOOES 



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PIN: 080759-001